Monday, February 24, 2020

Personal Perspective on Personality Theory Essay

Personal Perspective on Personality Theory - Essay Example Some of the more well-known theorists in this field are Sigmund Freud, Abraham Maslow and Carl Rogers. Each of these men approached the question of personality from a completely unique angle, presenting models that attempted to explain the complex mechanisms that go into the development of personality, however, Maslow’s theory of self-actualization seems to take a predominant lead in explaining personality development. Maslow proposed personality was developed along a hierarchy of needs beginning with the most basic needs of food, clothing and shelter. As these needs were being met, the individual could move on to obtaining the second level needs. These levels progressed through physiological, safety, belongingness/love, esteem and self-actualization. Self-actualization was the highest level need and represented that point in a person’s personality development when they have met all lower needs and are now free to pursue their true potential. â€Å"A person who is satisfied at the previous four levels will feel bored unless she or he is engaged in self-actualization striving† (Jazwinski, 1998). Within this theory, he goes on to enumerate 16 different major characteristics of a self-actualized person, 15 of which I can identify with. However, it is true that Maslow’s theory remains a little shallow with respect to how individual differences are formed with the only contributing factor being how well or poorly our needs have been realized (Pettifor, 1996). Freud’s theory centers around the concepts of the id, the ego and the superego. According to this theory, the id is the unconscious mind that responds only to urges and gratification. As we mature, we begin to act upon those impulses and develop a conscious mind, the ego. However, the ego recognizes that some of the actions desired by the id are not appropriate within a given society, so it begins

Saturday, February 8, 2020

Discussion 9 Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 750 words

Discussion 9 - Essay Example Aside from time, I think that the type of problem being addressed by the decision-making process is also determinative. When the problem addressed is broad and involves several units in the organizational structure, or when the problem involves profound policy formulation and implementation that will be applied in the long term, then decision-making is preferable. The resultant decision shall be implemented by a large part of the organization, therefore: (1) the feedback concerning possible repercussions in their respective areas must be considered; and (2) their cooperation must be engendered to make the long-term adjustments among and between the units successful. An example of this is the merging of a new acquisition into the existing structure of the surviving organization. On the other hand, if the decision is constrained by the circumstances such that negotiations among the units cannot be accommodated, or if the problem addressed is localized or requires moderate adjustments, then command decisions are best. An example is the order by the parent firm for a subsidiary to implement a global marketing strategy. Reference: Mezey, G (2004) Crisis management decision making. Atlantic Association for Research in the Mathematical Sciences (AARMS), 3(2): 267-288 2. Consider your work environment and responsibilities.   How do you avoid the problem of "bounded awareness" in the decisions you make at work? Bounded awareness is defined by Chugh and Bazerman (2004) as ‘an individual’s failure to â€Å"see† and use accessible and perceivable information while â€Å"seeing† and using other equally accessible and perceivable information’ (p. 2). Some people would call this ‘tunnel vision’ in the figurative sense, in so far as the person focuses on certain details or elements to the exclusion of other equally important, or even more important aspects. A person may be predisposed to looking only at select details for many r easons, such as a mental fixation or mindset, prejudicial presumptions, or lack of education or training in recognizing or appreciating what is important in a certain situation. In my own work environment, there is a tendency for medical representatives like myself to be fixated on our own particular product line-up, regular clientele, or the service area we are assigned to that we do not see how a specific decision or regulation could affect other product offerings, other clients, and other service areas. A new supervisor promoted from one of the subordinate units is often seen to exhibit a keen understanding of the circumstances of the unit he/she came from but a lack of understanding concerning other units now under his leadership. The best way one may avoid bounded awareness is of course forming a decision or advisory team to discuss and analyze the various facets of a problem and arrive at alternative recommendations before the final decision is made. There are many considerati ons that may not be apparent to an individual decision-maker because his attention is circumscribed by the aspects of management he/she is experienced in. In due time and with practice, bounded awareness may be addressed by developing a wider perspective of the