Saturday, August 31, 2019
These three sources help us understand why the public at home supported the war. The three sources combined are very positive and are always very calm. Firstly, Source D is an extract from a book. The extract was taken from Ã¢â¬Å"The first years of the great warÃ¢â¬ . It was published in London 1916 already becoming biased as it is all English. The extract provides a very real clue as to why the general public, waiting at home would be behind the war. The author gives a bright description of the British soldiers. The author spends a picture to the public at home describing the soldiers Ã¢â¬Å"leaping from their trenches,Ã¢â¬ . The author describes the German soldiers by the use of the word Ã¢â¬Å"HunÃ¢â¬ . The word Ã¢â¬Å"HunÃ¢â¬ is a negative term used for the Germans. Again the author, is becoming biased as he is very negative towards the Germans whereas he describes the British as being invincible. By this source the public get a vivid description imaging that the war is in favour to Britain as it does not refer to the amounts of deaths for the British soldiers. The writer says they didn't Ã¢â¬Å"falterÃ¢â¬ as they reached the Germans. He describes them as brave and advancing through the war easily. He mentions they attack in Ã¢â¬Å"Line after lineÃ¢â¬ . This makes the public at home feel secure as they think that not many British soldiers are dieing. They get this image from a few words, Ã¢â¬Å"didn't falter as they advanced, and move steadily as if on parade before the King, Heroes all.Ã¢â¬ This creates an unreal image in the readers mind as this is not actually happening in the war. Source E was a last letter written by Lieutenant John Raws on 19th August 1916. The person who wrote the letter shortly died during the Battle of the Somme. In his last letter he says, Ã¢â¬Å"GoldyÃ¢â¬ and the others officers were murdered.Ã¢â¬ For the murder of Goldy he blames Ã¢â¬Å"the incompetence callousness and personal vanity of those in high authorityÃ¢â¬ . He suggests that the soldiers in high authority such as the seniors were not good at their jobs and cowardly. In this Source there is a lot of emotive words like Ã¢â¬Å"callousnessÃ¢â¬ . He felt that the senior staff were all self centred and didn't care about the soldiers and their lives. When Lieutenant John Raws refers to Ã¢â¬Å"GoldyÃ¢â¬ Goldy was his brother his full name was Robert Gold Thorpe Raws. Source F, is an extract from a film. This was to show the public at home not to worry as everything was going in England's favor. The reason why they did this was for propaganda. The film had many real pictures however some of the footage was edited and made less violent removing a lot of deaths of the British soldiers Another vital aim for this film was to reassure the public at home the Ã¢â¬Å"realityÃ¢â¬ of the war. The film was made to make the public at home think that the British soldiers were on top and advancing through the war with ease. Sources D and F were to boost the support from the public at home and back the war. All three sources left out the horrific description of the war which was really occurring.
Friday, August 30, 2019
Explain the economic and political causes underlying the Salem witch Trials? The causes underlying the Salem witch trials has a lot to do with religious practices during the late 17th century. These cases were proven however not to be Just based on religion. Though the church was the power of the state the act of treason and the striping of due process concluded these trials could have been for money and property. When an accused was executed, sometimes that person's property was given to the state. Another possible underlying cause would be out of spite, or the slaking of someone.For example an accuser may accuse someone her or she does not Like and they could be executed. It could have started out of religious purposes however it seemed to be more of personal issues. Analyze the role that reverend Paris played In the Salem witch trials? The Role of reverend Paris played was quite Interesting and quite suspicious. Paris served as a justice during the trials but there's a catch. Two of the allegedly Ã¢â¬Å"possessedÃ¢â¬ girls were related to him. One being his daughter and another who was his niece. Paris was also responsible for Ã¢â¬Å"breaking TubaÃ¢â¬ .Otherwise known as questioning until the truth is revealed, Paris struck Tuba with hard questions until she confessed. Whether her confession was true or not, Is not known but Reverend Par's' roll Is quite skeptical to me. Evaluate the Significance of who was accused of witchcraft and who the accusers were? Well right off the back people being accused were the Native Americans and slaves. The Native Americans were already believed to be Ã¢â¬Å"employeesÃ¢â¬ of the devil. Some people living in Salem even claimed the woods of the new world was the devil's home. Slaves and Native Americans were not the only ones. W class colleens and people who seemed to be the poorest were being put on trial. These accused were being put on trial by the Upper-class and even farmers were sometimes accusing the poor. Brai nstorm and Discuss more recent events that you might label as witch-hunts? Something that I believe is a recent event that could be labeled, as Witch craft would be something about exorcisms and possessions. People, are claiming abnormalities from ghosts or lost ones just as the girls were In the Salem trials. However these cases are not usually brought to court. Instead they are made into TV shows, and OFF for ghosts.In some ways the Salem witch trials and Ghost hunters are very similar. Both are all claims and technology was and is not advanced enough to detect spirits or contact with the devil. Another event I think could be labeled as Ã¢â¬Å"witch huntsÃ¢â¬ would be the search of information on the illuminant. A group of people who are believed to worship satanic figures Just like the witches. Debate the use of spectral evidence and Tuba's confession in the trials. What would a modern court do with such evidence? Spectral evidence is a form of evidence based upon dreams and v isions.It was admitted into court during the Salem witch trials by the appointed chief Justice, William Sought. The definition Justifies the use right there, it is invalid and should not be used. This was evidence only the accuser could provide, being dreams, visions, sounds, and other strange things along those lines is not valid or factual enough to prove someone's innocence. Tuba's confession in my opinion could not have been Justified as truthful. Firstly she was from Barbados and though she may have been participating in witch like activities is does not mean she cursed the kids.Secondly she may have Just have confessed to get it over with because the community believed in forgiveness. If spectral evidence was used in court today it would probably be laughed at and the person claiming these visions or whatever would probably be placed in a clinic. Discuss how the witch trials came to an end in Salem and what their consequences were. In your view, were matters resolved fairly? T he witch trials came to an end with a realization, that perhaps the accusers were not telling the truth. In 1693 Tuba was proven guilty and sold into slavery.Over 200 people were accused and 55 were executed, survival usually came from a confession. After realizing the courts were wrong, in 1697 a pubic fasting took place, and in 1702 John Hale gave a powerful apology statement. It wouldn't be 300 yeas later until the last case was reversed. In my opinion matters were probably as solved as fairly as possible. How I see it was this whole case to our society seems crazy and we think of these accusers and Judges Just as crazy. During the 17th century though, witchcraft was thought to be so real that the inhabitants of a lusciously based community really had no choice but to believe.Mistakes were made ? Old say yes, but what needs to be looked into is those who were accused out of personal reasons for that was unfair treatment and people were losing loved ones over a claim, Justice was not served fairly then. How and why have different political and social groups competed for influence over society and government in what would become the united states? Well our country was Just on its start. In my opinion these groups competed because purpose. That purpose is to live in and make a perfect society, whether it is through elision, law, government or another practice the goal is all the same to live happy.Take a look at the 18th century in order to understand this competition more. Liberalizes, Nationalists, and Conservatives, all competing against each other to form that golden society. Liberalizes wanted equality and liberty, generally speaking civil rights and freedom. Nationalists this involves individual identifying with a nation, very similar to Patriotism. Conservatives was basing culture aspects based on western civilizations. You see all three want what's best but Just believe and have different opinions how to do it.How have Americans agreed or Argued over t he Values that guide the political system as well as who is part of the political process? Many Americans believe today's system is unjust and unfair. Americans have argued over the political system and schemes for years. It seems like the government always has something up its sleeve and its people know that. Like the Salem witch trials, and many other cases family members and friends were working on cases involving loved ones. This didn't make sense and people argued over that. How much say a person has, the penalties, who and when to speak has all been argued about until a solution was thought of.The agreeing and Arguing is what essentially shaped the political system into something more fair. How and why have changes in moral, philosophical and cultural values affected US history? Change, comes through one thing experience, and experience can come from mistakes or well doings. These values have all been tested up until now by trial and error. Starting with moral values take a lo ok at punishments for crime. The electric chair and hangings was a way of being punished for a crime, but with research and discovery these methods were found painful and unethical and charges have now differed.Philosophical values are along the lines of pollution. People have been polluting for centuries and it is now Just taking a toll on our environment and change is being made. Lastly cultural is more along the lines with lets say helping other countries, a few hundred years ago why would we do that? The world is ours, but we have realized we all need each other if we want to survive and live peacefully. So how has this affected United States history, well its simple change in values is what shaped our country today.. Each time a change happens, the previous thing being changed will no longer happen in history again.
Thursday, August 29, 2019
Human Sexuality - Research Paper Example Educating students primarily lead to self development. At an extensive level it results in social welfare (Williams, 1968, p.51). On such grounds of immense scope, the topic of Sex Education has been chosen. Many preconceptions are responsible for a generally negative attitude towards sex education in schools. One such preconception advocates that sex education at an early stage increases the curiosity of young students thereby leading to an early sexual experimentation. Contrary to this misconception, a research on sex education reveals that educating students about human sexuality and their moral implications discourages instances of premature practices (Department for Children, Schools and Families, 2000, p.4). The concept of educating pupils about sex at school pertains to two major reasons. Firstly, learning at an early level is more profound (Wetzstein, 2007, p. A07). Secondly, inculcating among their peers establishes a collaborative understanding of the concepts. Often misperceived as a way of ameliorating their physical lives only, sex education also develops the children emotionally and morally (Department for Children, Schools and Families, 2000, p.3). Owing to the effectiveness of sex education, its practice in schools has increased at a fast pace over the last few decades. According to the studies of Oettinger, from 1979 to 1994 the percentage of sex educated students augmented from 47 to 90 percent (Sabia, 2006, p.783) thereby implying the success of the program. Ã¢â¬ËLSBE refers to an interactive process of teaching and learning which enables learners to acquire knowledge and to develop attitudes and skills which support the adoption of healthy behavioursÃ¢â¬â¢ (UNICEF).
Wednesday, August 28, 2019
Comparative Analysis of American and Soviet Perspectives on the 1962 Cuban Missile Crisis - Essay Example The two nations have some valid grounds for assigning different relevance to different truths, and even to similar truths. Apparently, the truths themselves, regardless how popular, understood, or overlooked, are similar for both (Fursenko & Naftali 1997). Furthermore, as claimed by Fursenko and Naftali (1997), even nowadays, the crisis is not accurately known. Scholars on both sides have concentrated on how the events of the crisis have made subsequent leaders more cautious and more keenly sensitive to the importance of preventing decisions that could provoke another war. However, there is insufficient knowledge in the United States as to the reason that incident is referred to by the Soviet as the Ã¢â¬ËCaribbean crisisÃ¢â¬â¢, and how it may be critically considered as originating even partly from the U.S. decisions (Hirschbein 1997, 137). There is insufficient knowledge in the Soviet as to the reason it is appropriately viewed in the U.S. as a crisis caused by the covert entran ce of Soviet medium-range missiles into Cuba. And in these two nations there is inadequate focus on and knowledge of the entire interaction process, including not just conflicting points of view but conflicting paradigms of significant truth, or distinct groups of realities (Garthoff 1989). As stated by Nathan (1992), especially dissimilar base levels of transparency of documents or source materials in both nations complicate the issue of trying to attain some kind of consolidated historical and political point of view. The Cuban Missile Crisis: Comparing the Perspectives of U.S. and the Soviet Union The Soviet Union and the United States are superpowers with global ambitions, and at times those ambitions come to blows. Crisis management is needed if conflicts... This research aims to evaluate and present the Soviet Union and the United States as superpowers with global ambitions, and at times those ambitions come to blows. Crisis management is needed if conflicts occur; but crisis avoidance rooted in political control and recognition of dissimilarities is much to be desired. Reductions and regulations of arms control are vital in themselves and since they can positively influence political affairs. Nuclear war avoidance, and thus avoidance of any war implicating the Soviet Union and the United States, is of the greatest concern. Analyzing the experience and understanding the importance of the missile crisis of 1962 can help both nations to ascertain not only that this problem never happens again, but also that a bigger crisis never arises. The United States focused on crisis management. This inclination is true generally, and with regard to analysis of the Cuban missile crisis. In contrast, in the Soviet Union the common tendency and utmost attention paid to the 1962 Caribbean crisis has been aimed at improving crisis avoidance and political acceptance, instead of crisis management. Strangely invalidating the common stereotypes, the Americans have been moderate, cynical pragmatists, believing that, unfortunately, conflicts will arise and should be cautiously handled, whereas the Soviets have seemed to be hopeful, if not totally unrealistic, in claiming that crises can and should be avoided by political co-operation.
Tuesday, August 27, 2019
Not Listening to a Child as a Form of Neglect - Essay Example However, the real challenge is the application of past findings and integrating them in the participation of children for the sustainability of their rights. It is apparent from stereotypes and perceptions that the rights of children have been neglected hence impacting on the development of children. According to Lansdown (2005), listening to children's expressions and experiences at school, home or other environmental settings helps in raising their esteem, social skills, and cognitive abilities. Therefore, the more children are involved and engaged, the more they increase their competence, confidence and acquisition of other skills. It is important as a parent or for any responsible person to positively engage them through listening them, as it will contribute positively to their mental and psychological growth. Marginalized children and those who are vulnerable in society especially the looked after face a challenge in realizing their potential, thus they should be provided with support through participatory engagement and listening to their demands and needs (Howe and Covell 2005). Listening to children also helps challenge situations of violence, discrimination, injustices or other related threats therefore serving to protect children. Silencing children means that any injustices against them are kept in the dark, while the abusers get protected rather than the children. Jones and Welch (2010) affirm that, if children are encouraged to speak and are listened to, then it will rather be easier for any violations to be exposed.
Monday, August 26, 2019
Alcohol and Tobacco Control - Essay Example Drinking alcohol and smoking are not good for health. Both expose an individual to numerous kinds of health risks. Health risks associated with drinking alcohol include but are not limited to cirrhosis, pancreatitis, hypertension, osteoporosis, and wernicke-korsakoff syndrome. Cirrhosis is a disease in which the liver is scarred and its healthy tissue is replaced with the scarred tissue. Malfunctioning of the liver caused by this causes the build-up of bile in the blood. Pancreatitis is another disease caused by drinking alcohol that causes the inflammation of pancreas. This affects insulin production, thus causing intense abdominal pain along with nausea and fever. Hypertension is a condition in which the passage of blood through the arteries can cause the arteriesÃ¢â¬â¢ walls to rupture, thus causing stroke or heart attack. Alcohol consumption causes loss of the bone mass, a condition known as osteoporosis, thus increasing the risk of bone fracture. Wernicke-korsakoff syndrome is a brain disorder, which causes memory loss and blurred vision in the patient. Diseases caused by smoking include lungsÃ¢â¬â¢ cancer, oral cancer, cardiovascular diseases and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. The tar contained in the tobacco deposits in the mouth, throat and lungs thus increasing the smokerÃ¢â¬â¢s tendency to acquire cancer. ... Drinking and smoking are addictive habits. An individual who starts drinking and smoking goes a long way to reach the stage where he/she becomes a drug addict. Particularly, smoking often happens to be the first stage in the way of becoming a drug addict for many teenagers. It leads to the consumption of cocaine, marijuana and heroine in the later stages. Smoking all these drugs has potential negative implications on both the individualÃ¢â¬â¢s health and social life. The risks to health include all of the diseases that have been discussed before. Risks to the social life of the individual include poor academic performance, declined efficiency in work, laziness, and social exclusion. Teenagers that become drug addicts lose interest in studies. Consequentially, there academic grades start to decline. The poor academic performance has negative repercussions on the professional career of the individual as the eligibility of a candidate for a good job is directly governed by his/her pas t academic performance. This increases the drug addictÃ¢â¬â¢s risk of unemployment. In addition to that drug addicts are stigmatized and are subject to humiliation and social exclusion in the long run. Since the society does not accept them, they tend to be alone and are gradually pushed into social exclusion, in which they become depressed and may end up committing suicide. Owing to the myriad of negative effects of addiction caused by drinking and smoking, they should be prohibited. Control of alcohol and tobacco is compulsory in order to keep them out of the reach of children. Children are immature and generally unaware of the negative effects of alcohol and tobacco on their health. Even if they do know the effects, they tend to underestimate them owing to their immaturity. If alcohol
Sunday, August 25, 2019
Importance of Management in an Organization - Research Paper Example This report considers management as an asset and a resource to the organization putting forward an explanation on its importance to the organization. The report tries to provide a deeper and precise understanding of the management phenomena for the sustainability and the competiveness of the organization. Using a case setting of a health care and a medical service provider it is evident that management contributes greatly to the improved performance, efficiency and the competitiveness of the organization, this examination is based on the longitudinal study of this organization covering its key departments in which the concept of management is vital. The report provides the importance of management for a better organizational corporate environment attributed by good management. Finally is that the report justifies the importance of management in the interaction among the stakeholders organization which is crucial in determining the stability and the organizational future sustainability. Contents ABSTRACT 2 Contents 3 INTRODUCTION 4 RESEARCH METHODOLOGY 9 Case Study Setting 10 RESULTS 10 The Perception of the Stakeholders 12 DISCUSS ION OF THE RESULTS 13 CONCLUSIONS 16 INTRODUCTION There have been ambiguities in the context of the concept of management in most organizations on its importance in the contribution to the improved performance and the overall success an organization. Most of the organizations notably both the profit and non-profit organizations have began to realize the importance of adopting best and improved management principles and practices in order to be able to establish themselves and to adapt into the current corporate environment. In regard to the principles of best management practices, management is widely recognized as the intangible asset and a resource of an organization which is the key factor towards the achievement of organizational sustainability as well as the competitive advantage thus contributing to the accelerating pace and the overall growth of the organization (Agarwal 2003). According to the various research provided by scholars, in the current corporate world the initial and traditional factors of production such as the capital, labor and land have become less important in the achievement of optimum positive economic and social returns without the incorporation of the concept of management. As the implication of this, it is notable that most of the organizations have concentrated in the investment and the creation of value and convertible economic results through the integration of management principles and practices while running the operations of the organization (David Knights 2007). The importance of management in the running of organizations has been acknowledged by most of the scholars and researchers as the major strategic resource management in the achievement of the organization competiveness and the organizational sustainability. The increased dynamicity, complexity and the complexity in the operations of the various organizations has sparked the interest and the need to adopt better and enhanced management. The key importance of managemen t is its purpose and role in the formulation and design of management strategies, these strategies are regarded as the essential corporate resource which provides the sustainability and the competitive advantage to the organization. The major part of the workforce is the presence of qualified employees who are well educated with the relevant knowledge and experience for the designated
Saturday, August 24, 2019
Morality based on consequences (like utilitarianism) or morality based on duties - Essay Example On the other hand, the Morality based on consequences (like utilitarianism ethics), provides that the consequence of an action that an individual has taken outweighs whatever intentions such an individual had when taking the action (Vaughn, 2012). Therefore, the Morality based on consequences, for example utilitarianism ethical theory, provides that an action is defined as either morally right or wrong, depending on whether the action produces favorable or unfavorable outcomes (Vaughn, 2012). In this respect, the utilitarianism theory of ethics provide that the outcome of an action should not be undermined, and thus individuals should first measure the possible consequences of an action before taking it. This way, the individuals will only take the action that has favorable outcomes for them and for everyone (Vaughn, 2012). Therefore, given an opportunity to choose between the morality based on consequences (like utilitarianism) and morality based on duties, separated from consequences (like Kants ethics), morality based on consequences (like utilitarianism) will be preferred. The choice of the utilitarianism ethical theory over the Kantian ethics is informed by the fact that; the utilitarianism ethical theory recognizes that any action may have either good or bad consequences; or both good and bad consequences at the same time (Vaughn, 2012). In recognition of this fact, the utilitarianism ethical theory provides that individuals should first weigh the possible consequences of their actions, such that they can determine the favorable and the unfavorable consequences. Further, the utilitarianism ethical theory provides that on the event that an action produces both good and bad consequences; the individual should weigh which one of the two weighs out heavily, and then act upon the action that will have an overall weighty favorable
Friday, August 23, 2019
CRJS478IP4 - Research Paper Example DNA profiling includes the extraction of the DNA from a specimen and separating the molecule to fragments. Since DNA varies from one individual to another, the patterns formed by the fragments are different and unique to the individual. DNA profiling is used expansively in the detection and prevention of crime as well as ensuring that prosecutions are safe (McDonald & Lehman, 2011). DNA profiling is important in the law enforcement process because it offers the possibility of determining whether biological materials found at the crime scene belong to the person suspected of committing the crime. The process can be utilized in identifying rapists in sexual assault cases. The main advantage of DNA profiling as compared to other serological tests is that DNA tests can be conducted with more accuracy. DNA profiling is more specific compared to other tests such as HLA and ABO typing. A DNA profile can be obtained from the tinniest body tissue found at the scene and this makes DNA profiling desirable since only very little evidence is needed (Toom, 2012). In rape case investigations, relevant evidence that can be collected from the scene include used condoms, clothes, sheets and other physical evidence such as hair, skin fibers and trace evidence. In rape cases, there are two crime scenes, which are the place the act took place and the victimsÃ¢â¬â¢ body. Evidence from both these environments is essential to investigations. Used condoms often contain body fluids, especially semen, and this can be helpful in identifying the perpetrator through the use of DNA profiling. Clothes and sheets also have biological material from both the victim and the perpetrator and analysis of these can yield sufficient information to form a profile of the perpetrator. Likewise the other physical evidence and trace evidence would probably have body cells from the perpetrator of the crime and these
Ethics Report - Essay Example Correspondingly, this paper entails the conduct of interview with a management trainee belonging to Commonwealth Bank and a Human Resource manager of Bank of America Corporation in order to understand the impact of code of conducts on their behavior and career development. Introduction In the current business environment, it can be viewed that most of the leading companies throughout the globe are widely embracing the functions relating to human resource (HR). The HR managers or the HR professionals performing various sorts of HR functions are often considered to be planned change agents, proven leaders and trusted member within a particular organization. It can be admitted that HR functions over the years have dramatically changed from transactional towards more strategic due to changing business environment. At the same time, it can be firmly argued that without skillful abilities, it is quite hard for HR managers to perform various roles and HR functions efficiently (Rocca & Morro w, 2008). Correspondingly, two professions have been identified for the research purpose that includes a HR management trainee from Commonwealth Bank and a HR manager from Bank of America Corporation. ... Similarly, The Bank of America Corporation is an American based multinational financial service provider which is regarded as the second largest banking company in the US in terms of assets. The bank is committed to provide valuable service to its customers through delivering various financial and non-financial services such as employment, lending and investing. The interview was conducted through e-mail conversation and thus questions have been framed duly prior to the interview. The interview questions were designed to address various relevant aspects associated with HR (Bank of America Corporation, 2013). The primary rationale of conducting the interview was to acquire considerable understanding about code of conducts and their impacts on the behavior of individuals during the course of career development. Interview Reflection The interviewees warmly responded to the first question (refer to Appendix) and asserted that while devising and enforcing professional/organizational code of conduct, various aspects are taken into concern. Accordingly, it was apparently observed that management support, consultation with staffs, explicitly defined terms and policies are crucial while devising the organizational policies. It was emphasized that the devised policies should be directed towards the welfare of the organizations and should be fair as well as free from any kind of biasness. It was also stressed that the policies devised should be regularly evaluated and monitored in order to ensure the efficiency of the policy enforced. Based on the interview, the management trainee of Commonwealth Bank emphasized the functions and the responsibilities to be the critical factors for ensuring smooth functioning of
Thursday, August 22, 2019
Population and Economic Growth Essay The debate between positive and negative sides of population growth is ongoing. Population growth enlarges labour force and, therefore, increases economic growth. A large population also provides a large domestic market for the economy. Moreover, population growth encourages competition, which induces technological advancements and innovations. Nevertheless, a large population growth is not only associated with food problem but also imposes constraints on the development of savings, foreign exchange and human resources. Generally, there is no consensus whether population growth is beneficial or detrimental to economic growth in developing economies. Moreover, empirical evidence on the matter for developing economies is relatively limited (Savas, 2008). According to Population Ã¢â¬ËrevisionistÃ¢â¬â¢ economists, population growth acts as an indispensable constituent for stimulating economic development because a sizeable population provides the required consumer demand to generate favorable economies of scale in production, lower production costs, and provide a sufficient and low-cost labor supply to achieve higher output levels (Todaro 1995, p. 03). Johnson (1999) pointed out that a high rate of economic growth is associated with high population growth and low economic growth is associated with low population growth. The issue of population and economic growth is as old as the discipline ofeconomics itself. The debate on the relationship between population andeconomic growth could be traced back to 1798 when Thomas Malthus published the book An Essay on the Principle of Population. Malthus claimed that there is a tendency for the population growth rate to surpass the production growth rate because population increases at a geometrical rate while production increases at an arithmetic rate. Thus, the unfettered population growth in a country could plunge it into acute poverty. However, the pessimist view has proven unfounded for developed economies in that they managed to achieve a high level of economic growth and thus, both population and the real gross domestic product (GDP)per capita were able to increase (Savas, 2008). Similarly, many of the empirical studies that claimedthat a rapid population growth impeded economicdevelopment could not be considered reliable. This isbecause the statistical correlation between populationexpansion and economic growth has not addressed thecausal relationship between the two (Repetto, 1985). The nature, direction and pattern of the causal relationship between population growth and economic growth has been the subject of very old debate among economists, demographers, policy-makers and researchers which is an open issue in development economics. Even though the nexus between population development and economic development has received extensive attention in the earlier period, it seems a stylized reality that it is hard to obtain a robust effect of population on economic development today. Despite the fact that there are abundant research studies on the relationship between population and economic development, there is no universal consensus as to whether population expansion is beneficial or detrimental to economic growth. (SarbapriyaandIshita, 2012). Population and Economic GrowthÃ The debate on the relationship between population and economic growth could be traced back to Malthus. According to Malthus, population tends to grow geometrically, whereas food supplies grow only arithmetically. According to the Malthusian model, the causation goes in both directions. Higher economic growth increases population by stimulating earlier marriages and higher birth rates, and by cutting down mortality from malnutrition and other factors. On the other hand, higher population also depresses economic growth through diminishing returns. This dynamic interaction between population and economic growth is the centre of the Malthusian model, which implies a stationary population in the long-run equilibrium. Malthuss concern created quite a stir in the early nineteenth century England, leading to widespread calls for restraints on population growth. Still, the English population expanded quite rapidly throughout the nineteenth century, but by most evidence real income rose and the spectre of mass starvation declined(Sarbapriya and Ishita, 2012). One of the stylized facts about population in all contemporary developed nations is that over the past couple of centuries it has passed through three stages (i. e. , demographic transition). The first stage is characterized by high birth rates and high death rates, resulting in a slow population growth. In thesecond stage there was a decrease in death rates, however the birth rates remained high as a consequence of increases in population. Finally, in the third stage, fertility rates fell and combined with low mortality rates resulted in very low or no population growth. The usual explanations for the time evolution of population relies generally on the idea that the improvement of economic conditions Ã¢â¬â which includes massive improvements in public health Ã¢â¬â led first to a reduction in the mortality rates, and finally to a decrease in the birth rates. As income per capita is a good proxy for economic conditions because it reflects, among other things, the impact of technology, education and health, the usual explanations therefore suggest that there is a strong link between per capita income and population. Indeed, the main theories put forward by economists to explain the evolution of population relates it to per capita income not aggregate output. This implies that there is a direct relation between per capita income and population size, an increase in income per capita leads to an increase in the size of population ((Sarbapriya and Ishita, 2012) The relationship between population and economicgrowth is complex and the empirical evidence is ambiguous, particularly concerning the causes and impacts3. It can be demonstrated in a theoretical model that a large population growth could have both negative and positive impacts on productivity4. A large population may reduce productivity because of diminishing returns to more intensive use of land and other natural resources. Conversely, a large population could encourage greater specialization, and a large market increases returns to human capital and knowledge. Thus, the net relationship between greater population and economic growth depends on whether the inducements to human capital and expansion of knowledge are stronger than diminishing returns to natural resources. Therefore, it is important to examine the population and economic growth nexus (Savas, 2008).
Wednesday, August 21, 2019
Importance of International Organizations International Organizations (IOs) are formal institutional structures transcending national boundaries which are created by multilateral agreement among nation-states. Their purpose is to foster international cooperation in areas such as: security, law, economic, social matters and diplomacy. (Graham Newham , 1998, p. 270). IOs are subdivided between Intergovernmental Organizations (IGOs) and Non-Governmental Organizations (NGOs); Intergovernmental Organizations are entities created with sufficient organizational structure and autonomy to provide formal, ongoing, multilateral processes of decision making between states, along with the capacity to execute the collective of their member (states) (Diehl Frederking, 2010, p. 15). NGOs are non-state voluntary organizations formed by individuals to achieve a common purpose, often oriented beyond themselves or to the public good (Karns Mingst , 2010, p. 221). The development and expansion of these large representative bodies date back to the end of the World War II, where there was a need for world reconstruction through International Relations. Since then, there has been an incremental rise of organizations that work on different socio-political and economic aspects with various and specific aims in approaching states, societies, groups and individuals. Based on these key definitions, this essay will thus attempt to explain how important are IOs and the extent to which they have an impact on global politics and international relations through an analysis of two main IR scholar theories namely Realism and Liberalism. Moreover, to understand the impact of IOs, these theories will be explored and analysed through contexts of different and conflicting realist and liberalists thinkers upon their view on these institutional structures. It will also distinguish and compare the two theories and determine which is more relevant to the contemporary world international relations. Finally, the ultimate the goal of this essay is to support the view of liberalism, as the main concluding arguments rest upon the idea that global governance requires a set of different actors across that shape together the process of decision-making in international relations. Realism is an IR theory based a pessimistic view of human nature. Its central feature lies within the relative power of the state and as there is no world government to impose order and stability, states engage in self-help to ensure their basic survival interests notably (security , power capability and survival). Because of the absence of a world government, the world structure is anarchic and anarchy heightens the stakes of interaction so that competing interest have the potential to escalate into military interactions. The state is the national arbiter who judges its foreign policies. As much emphasis is put on the power capabilities of the state in the international system, realists pay little attention in regards to IOs as they play little influence in global governance. States would never cede to international institutions and IOs and similar institutions are of little interest; they merely reflect national interests and power and do not constrain powerful states (Diehl Frede rking, 2010). One example is the United States hegemony and the use of IOs as means for expansion of power, pursue their self-interest and guarantee security. For example, realists would argue that most of the IGOs that serve as a backbone for contemporary international cooperation can be traced to American hegemony in the immediate aftermath of WW2. The United States promoted the creation of the UN as an umbrella organization for treaty-based cooperation in a variety of global concerns and issue areas. It also oversaw the creation of the International Monetary (IMF), the World Bank, and the General Agreement on Tariffs and Trade (GATT) with the express goal of encouraging cooperative economic exchange and also as instruments designed for continuing utility of U.S policies (Weiss Wilkinson , 2014, p. 295). Even the Soviet Union used Mutual Economic assistance to organize economic relations within the eastern bloc. Powerful states structure organizations to further their own interes ts but must do so in a way that it induces weaker states to participate (Diehl Frederking, 2010, p. 33). Liberalism is a post-war framework for world politics based on the construction of a global, legal and political system which go beyond the state and afford the protection to all human subjects. (Jackson Sorensen, 2007). The theory is mainly subdivided by two strands; firstly, interdependence liberalism which studies modernization as ways of increasing the level of interdependence of states; and secondly, institutional liberalism which studies international institutions as mechanisms of promoting cooperation between states. The theory mainly bases its assumptions upon positive human progress and modernization in which they together will eventually lead to cooperation. Modernization is the process of involving progress in most areas in life as well as the development of a modern state. This process enlarges the scope of cooperation across international boundaries. Due to modernization, cooperation based on mutual interests will prevail that is because modernization increases the leve l and scope of transnational relations where transactions costs are lower and levels of higher interdependence are high. Under complex interdependence, transnational actors are increasingly important, military force is a less useful instrument and welfare, (not security) is becoming a primary goal and concern of states (Jackson Sorensen, 2007, p. 107). Therefore when there is a high degree of interdependence, states will often set up international institutions to deal with common problems and maximize welfare. These institutions are designed to promote cooperation across international boundaries by providing information and lowering costs. Institutions can be formal organizations such WTO (World Trade Organization) and EU (European Union), or they can be less formal sets of agreements such as the so-called regimes. For liberals, international cooperation and progress are the central features that drive states, IOs and non-state actors. These different institutions are responsible f or managing transnational problems in a peaceful, human and legal way. It is also important to emphasize the structural change in international relations during post-Cold War period that have empowered new types of actors and opened new opportunities for them to act. Such changes also include: globalization and privatization/deregulation. Globalization has undermined the correspondence between social action and he territory enclosed by states border. Ideas about human rights have become platforms for social connections between people across the globe. The Thatcher and Reagan-led privatization and deregulation in the 1980s revolution has compounded this change in relations between states and social power; States transferred public enterprises and state functions to private actors and increasingly encouraged private actors to finance policies such as education, municipal services and even security, which has been part on the pivotal role of many corporation social responsibility (CSR) programmes (Avant , et al., 2010, p. 5). Global change also owes much t o the end of the cold war, where a variety of political, economic and security realms, activists and organizations began to push for change. With the triumph of the United States and the liberal model, privatization and deregulation ideas emboldened many organizations to drop the cold-war style of bipolarity of states and push for liberal capitalist change that embodied presence of a variety of actors (Avant , et al., 2010, p. 6). Indeed great proliferation of non-state actors such as NGOs has happened since the 1980s with more than 4,000 International Non-government Organizations (INGOs) and has increased until current years to nearly 8,000 INGOs and several millions national and indigenous NGOs (Karns Mingst , 2010, p. 230). The role of these NGOs is explained by a varied number of functions and roles they exert. NGOs can seek the best venues to present issues and to apply pressure. They can provide new ideas and draft texts for multilateral treaties; they can monitor human rights and environmental norms; participate in global conferences and raise issues, submit position papers and lobby for viewpoint; and ultimately they can perform functions of governance in absence of state authority (Karns Mingst , 2010, p. 235). Large numbers of NGOs are involved in humanitarian relief, from large international NGOs to small, locally based groups. The Red Cross, Doctors without borders, the International Rescue Committee and Oxfam are among hundreds of international humanitarian relief organizations involved in complex emergencies such as the conflicts in Somalia, Kosovo, Bosnia, Congo and Liberia, the genocides in Rwanda and Darfur and natural disasters such as Hurricane Mitch in Central America (Karns Mingst , 2010, p. 224). Participation by NGOs has also increasingly been involved within UN summit and global conferences. NGOs are increasingly viewed by those in the UN system as partners or stakeholders in multitasker coalitions. This is evident in the Global compact on corporate social responsibility, which aims to bring multinationals and NGOs into partnership with the UN. Likewise, the Millennium Development Goals propose partnerships for development, calling for all actors including NGOs to cooperate in achieving those goals. In 2002, around 3,200 NGOs were represented at the World Summit on Sustainable Development in Johannesburg. Also UN specialized agencies work in conjunction with NGOs. Most UN agencies with field programmes and offices, now contract with NGOs to provide services and decision-making in areas of Humanitarian relief and economic development. For example, many services including food, medicine are chased by the UNHCR and WFP and delivered to the local population by C ARE, Doctors without Borders or Oxfam. Whether an NGO is focused on human rights, peace, disarmament, indigenous peoplesÃ¢â¬â¢ rights, labour rights, climate change, or tropical forests, it is clear that they have become an important actor in world politics as they often to seek to change the policies and behavior of both governments and IGOs. Disagreement between realism and liberalism as well as other IR theories is not over the existence of institutions or the fact that they are found where cooperation is high but rather on the claim that whether they are more than statecraft instruments and have an independent impact (Weiss Wilkinson , 2014, p. 7). As realists would conceive it, IOs offer little change to the perpetual power struggle as they cannot change the human nature desire for power nor can they change the nature of the anarchical system. On the other hand, liberalists cannot imagine a contemporary world where governments act solo. Cooperation has made states very interdependent and has also opened new paths for new actors that are willing to work more efficiently together. IR is not only a study of relations between international governments. Overlapping interdependent relations between people and voluntary organizations are bound to be more cooperative than relations between states because states are exclusive and their interests do not overlap and cross-cut (Jackson Sorensen, 2007, p. 102). Liberals also emphasize that states interest have changed throughout history. Whereas before it was a matter of security and power, today more primacy has been given towards economic development and trade. Throughout history states have sought power by means of military force and territorial expansion. But for highly industrialized countries economic development and foreign trade are more adequate and less costly means of achieving prominence and prosperity; that is because the costs of using force have increased and the benefits have declined. (Jackson Sorensen, 2007, p. 102). Realists though maintain that the state is the ultimate authority, they are the ones to sign interstate treaties, create international law, and promulgate wide-ranging rules to initiate, regulate, and govern activity desired. States are by no means alone in this endeavor. They explanation on powerful states using IGOs as means to achieve their ends can be implemented on UN permanent members of the security council which is formed by the most powerful states, that have larger power than other UN member states. Also, there has been many situations where IGOs have failed to constrain powerful states from acting in a certain way, for example, during the cold war, the security council was much ineffective in solving large differences between the U.S and the Soviet Union, more recently RussiaÃ¢â¬â¢s occupation of Crimea in which no IGO (including the UN) prevented such act from happening. In regards to NGOs, realists explain that they hardly appear as viable international actors. They po se no threat to state sovereignty. While state and non-sate actors may have differentiated responsibilities, ultimately authority rests with the state and that is the essence of sovereignty. The role of states remains central to global governance, no matter how much political authority is decentralized and power diffused to the burgeoning non-state actors (Karns Mingst , 2010, p. 253). Liberals on the other hand acknowledge that powerful states will not easily be completely constrained. However, institutional liberals do not agree with the realist view that international institutions are a mere scrape of paper, that they are completely mercy of powerful states. International institutions are more than mere handmaidens of strong states (Diehl Frederking, 2010, p. 32). Liberals argue that there is credibility and functionality within IOs in influencing international relations and that they attempt to critic realists idea of IOs as mere instruments led by powerful states but rather they are led universally by different member states and other actors. For example, when the United States decided to reverse the Iraqi invasion of Kuwait, it did not act unilaterally as it turned to the United Nations Security Council. Similarly, when the International Community sought to maintain the suspension of combat in Bosnia, it did not rely on national efforts, it sent in peacekeep ing units under the aegis of the UN and NATO (Diehl Frederking, 2010, p. 27). In regards to non-state actors, such as NGOs, liberals argue that in few cases NGOs can take the place of states, either performing services that an inept or corrupt government is not doing, or stepping in for a failed state. For example, Bangladesh hosts the largest NGO sector in the world (more than 20,000) responding to what Bangladeshi describe as Ã¢â¬Ëthe failure of government to provide public goods and look after the poor, and the failure of the private sector to provide enough employment opportunities (draws on Waldman 2003) NGOs have taken on roles in education, health, agriculture, and microcredit, all of which originally were government functions (Waldman, 2003 cited in Karns Mingst, 2010, p. 224). Liberals argue that realism fails to read contemporary international order correctly. A priori privileges the states, misses the importance of non-state actors, fails to recognize the social const ruction of IR because of its rationalist assumptions and its fatalistic tendencies counsel conservative foreign policies that reinforce power politics and hence its own explanations for world affairs (Weiss Wilkinson , 2014, p. 102). To conclude, it is imperative that one acknowledges Global governance in assessing who exercises power in decision-making. Based on the arguments on this essay, one would mostly agree that no government/state can govern/act alone. The growing authority of a wide variety of agents/actors can also add potential partners to states and distributing different tasks to different actors. By working collectively, one can certainly argue that multilateralism often requires a network of cooperation that leads to interdependence between different actors whether they are states, IOs or non-state actors, thus after all Ã¢â¬ËIt is impossible to imagine a contemporary international life without formal organizations.Ã¢â¬â¢ (Schermers and Blokker, 1995 cited in Diehl Frederking, 2010, p. 28). Bibliography Avant , D., Finnemore , M. Sell , S. eds., 2010. Who governs the Globe? . In: Who governs the Globe? . Cambridge : Cambridge University Press, pp. 1-31. Diehl, P. Frederking, B., 2010. The Politics of Global Governance: international Organizations in an Independent World. 4th ed. Colorado: Lynne Rienner Publishers. Graham , E. Newham , J., 1998. Dictionary of International Relations. 1st ed. London: Penguin Books. Jackson , R. Sorensen, G., 2007. Introduction to International Relations: Theories and Approaches. 3rd ed. New York: Oxford University Press . Karns, M. Mingst , K., 2010. International Organizations: The Politics and Processes of Global Governance. 2nd ed. Colorado: Lynne Rienner Publishers. Weiss , T. Wilkinson , R., 2014. International Organization and Global Governance. 2014 ed. Oxford : Routledge.
Tuesday, August 20, 2019
Grays Behavioral Activation System Psychology Essay Gray proposed that personality is rooted from two neuropsychological systems that control behavior and emotions. One of the two systems is the behavioral activation system (BAS), which functions on the concept of positive reinforcement. Previous research has indicated that the mesolimbic dopaminergic pathways are responsible for the activation of BAS and sensitivity to the construct produces heightened reward from positive reinforcement. As such, prior studies have demonstrated similar correlations between high BAS sensitivity and low P300 amplitude as a precursor for psychopathological disorders, due to reward dependency. The present study used the Carver White (1994) questionnaire to obtain the BIS/BAS scales of 9 healthy, introductory psychology students. The event-related potential was an oddball paradigm of high frequency, low frequency and novel tones and P300 averages were extracted from an EEG. The low and high BAS scores both produced similar amplitudes, however the low sco res produced a shorter latency. The results indicate inconsistency and emphasize the need for further scientific research to expand on theoretical constructs, such as personality. Introduction Historically, the construct of personality was developed based upon philosophical principles that sought to explain the human psyche. As the theories of personality have become a major part of mainstream psychology today, the biopsychological components of personality have evolved into an innovative area of scientific research. Gray (1987) argued that personality is influenced by the two brain systems that control behavior and emotions. A component of this theory, the behavioral activation system, is portrayed as a personality construct with a neurological foundation. A neuropsychological paradigm is crucial in the deconstruction of theoretical hypotheses to influence the expansion and application of knowledge regarding human behavior. The use of electroencephalograms with event-related potentials and personality questionnaires regarding the behavioral activation system emphasize the importance for exploring theoretical constructs with scientific research. Based on research from animal learning paradigms, Grays (1993) personality theory asserts the idea that individual differences in personality traits mirror the variability in sensitivity towards stimuli affiliated with negative and positive reinforcement (Franken et al., 2006). The behavioral activation system is a neurological reward mechanism that is initiated by positive reinforcement. It mediates responses to signals of conditioned reward, non-punishment, escape from punishment and the activation influences progression toward goals (Harmon-Jones Allen, 1997). The opposite emotional system is the behavioral inhibition system; which is activated by conditioned stimuli associated with punishment or the termination of reward (Franken et al., 2006). That being said, the behavioral activation and inhibition systems are extremes of a continuum in which ones behavior is likely to be reinforced positively or negatively, depending on which part of the continuum they score. The behavioral activation system (BAS) is connected to positive feelings and approach behaviors when experiencing a reward (Gable et al., 2000). For example, an individual with high BAS sensitivity would seek out everyday type situations where they experienced positive reinforcement, or search for similar situations where they have a chance of being positively reinforced. Positive reinforcement is how people thrive in the world. From an evolutionary perspective, to go out and hunt for food when experiencing hunger, find food and bring it home to eat and share with family members so they can survive is an example of everyday positive reinforcement. The key difference between a typical situation and a situation in regards to an individual with high BAS sensitivity would be that the positive reinforcement would be differentially reinforced more so in comparison to conventional reinforcement (Franken et al., 2006). Grays (1993) theory of personality suggests that those with high behavioral activation sensitivity are predisposed to psychopathological disorders due to their perceived response from positive, differential reinforcement (Franken et al., 2006). That being said, impulsivity is a key characteristic of high BAS sensitivity and is a major variable in the susceptibility of risky behavior. Other correlations to high sensitivity are high psychoticism, neuroticism and extraversion, which demonstrates that high BAS sensitivity, could act as a precursor for delinquency among the population (Jorm et al., 1999). Neuroscience is beginning to identify strong relationships between BAS sensitivity and approach behaviors such as; conduct disorder, alcoholism, substance abuse and psychopathy. According to Gray (1993), the biological basis of BAS is associated with mesolimbic dopaminergic pathways ascending from nucleus A10 of the ventral tegmentum of the brainstem (Matthews Gilliland, 1999). Recent studies involving substance use indicate the similarity between dopamine release in the nucleus accumbens and the emotional high observed in alcohol and drug users. Thus, implying that BAS sensitivity and is related to addictive behaviors and substance abusers have an increased responsiveness to stimuli associated with rewards (Franken et al., 2006). Sutton and Davidson (1997) claim that throughout various clinical and laboratory observations, the left prefrontal cortex is a biological substrate of approach behavior and positive affect; whereas the right prefrontal cortex exhibits the opposite behaviors, imposing the locality of the behavioral inhibition system. When damaged, the left prefrontal cortex influences depressive symptomatology due to the inhibition of approach behaviors (Sutton Davidson, 1997). More specifically, the reward signal begins with increased dopamine cellular activity in the ventral tegmental area, which labels environmental stimuli with appetitive value and appears to signal motivating events (Kalivas Nakamura, 1999). The glutamatergic input from the amygdala and afferents cue behavior if the stimulus is a conditioned reward. The nucleus accumbens and afferents to the nucleus accumbens serve distinct functions involving motivational circuitry, which would reinforce the behavior. The major neurotransmitters involved in the motivational circuitry are GABA, glutamate and dopamine, however; encephalin, serotonin and acetylcholine are also present. Finally, afferents from the prefrontal cortex integrate information from short-term memory into a behavioral response (Kalivas Nakamura, 1999). To explore theories of previous research regarding brain localization and processes of BAS, a method of measuring cortical activation could be initiated, such as an event-related potential with an electroencephalogram (EEG). Event-related potentials (ERPs) are a non-invasive method of measuring brain activity during cognitive processing (Johnson et al., 1987). ERPs are linked in time with a physical or mental event and are extracted from an EEG by means of signal averaging (Duncan et al., 2009). The transient electric potential shifts are time-locked to the stimulus onset; such as the presentation of a word, sound, or image. Each component reflects brain activation associated with one or more neurological operations. In contrast to behavioral measures, such as error rates and response times, ERPs are characterized by simultaneous multi-dimensional online measures of negative or positive polarity, amplitude, latency, scalp distribution and its relation to experimental variables (Dunca n et al., 2009). Thus, ERPs are beneficial and can be used to differentiate and aid in the identification of psychological and neural sub-processes involved in complex cognitive, motor or perceptual tasks (Nijs et al. 2007). An electroencephalogram (EEG) precisely measures these shifts in polarity with a distribution of electrodes placed on the participants scalp (Duncan et al., 2009). The most analyzed component of the event-related potentials is at the p300 wave. Peaking as early as 250ms or as late as 900ms, the p300 is emitted by the brain when the participant recognizes and processes and incoming stimulus (Coles Rugg, 1995). It is usually elicited using the oddball paradigm in which low-probability target items are mixed with high-probability non-target items. The latency between stimulus and response is the stimulus evaluation time and is controlled by the pace in which the subject can place the stimulus into the correct category and respond (Coles Rugg, 1995). The amplitude of the p300 depends on the probability of the target stimulus, and in an oddball paradigm, the rarer the event; the larger the amplitude will be of the p300 (Coles Rugg, 1995). The amount of information processed also influences the amplitude suggesting that the p300 reflects a process in which the incoming information modifies and updates the current model of the environment (Coles R ugg, 1995). The p300 is divided into two components: the P3a and the P3b. The P3a is elicited over the frontal regions of the scalp and is represented as a positive component. The P3a occurs when a third novel stimulus is incorporated into the simple oddball structure and has a shorter latency than the p300 (Johnson et al., 1987). The P3b is then defined as the classical p300, which is distributed over the centro-parietal area. The behavioral activation system has three subscale components: reward-responsiveness, fun seeking and drive. The reward system and brain structures hypothesized in previous studies provide a strong argument in regards to BAS. Increased levels of dopamine and high BAS scores should be significantly correlated, as the function of dopamine involves increasing the readiness to discover new experiences. As such, it should also be appreciated that norepinephrine was not included as a key player in the neurotransmitters involving the reward system. One would assume that dopamine and norepinephrine would go hand in hand in regards to reward, as norepinephrine is the major neurotransmitter involved in motivation (Franken et al., 2006). A study by Nijs et al. (2007) was conducted on 50 healthy, adult individuals using the Carver and White (1994) questionnaire and a visual oddball paradigm with averaging from an EEG. Previous studies incorporating BAS scores and extracting ERP averages from an EEG were unknown to Nijs et al. (2007), however they predicted a negative correlation between BAS scores and the p300 amplitude for their study. They did address the reoccurring theme in previous research of a low p300 amplitude and impulsivity, psychopathy and substance use disorders. The results of the study demonstrated significant positive correlations were found between BAS and p300 amplitude (Nijs et al., 2007). Therefore, the hypothesis for this study is that those with high BAS sensitivity scores will produce large p300 amplitude to the rare stimulus, because of the P3bs indication of low activity in those with psychiatric disorders. Methods Sample Participants for the study were recruited from introductory to psychology classes. They were given the option of writing a paper or volunteering for a study involving personality in the research lab and receiving credit compensation. Those who volunteered for the study were informed that if they were on medication or had medical conditions that conflicted with EEG results, then they would be discharged. This research study initially began with a total of twelve introductory to psychology students; however, adequate data was only retrieved from nine participants. Instruments An online version of the Carver and White (1994) Behavioral Inhibition System and Behavioral Activation System Questionnaire was completed by each participant prior to the study. This questionnaire is the latest BAS/BIS updated measurement questionnaire involving the three subscales of BAS (reward responsiveness, drive and fun seeking). Upon arrival, a medical form was filled out to give an indication of health status and a consent form was distributed and signed. A type of oddball paradigm was utilized and an electroencephalogram (EEG) recorded and averaged the corresponding event-related potentials. Procedure After receiving the completed questionnaires, the total scores were then calculated. Those students participating in the study were given an outline of the regulations and procedures of the experiment. Upon entering the research laboratory, the medical and consent forms were filled out before commencing the study. Participants were then connected to the EEG using the Jasper 10-20 placement, which particularly involves the electrodes Fz, Cz, Pz and reference electrodes behind the ears. Electrodes were also placed under the right eye and the ground electrode on the forehead to identify muscle activity that might be confused with brain activity. The student was then directed into an isolated room where they received headphones and were presented with the oddball paradigm. In random sequence a rare low frequency tone, high frequency tone and a novel tone were administered. The participants were made aware that when the target low frequency tone was presented they needed to respond by cli cking a button. Once all stimuli were executed, participants were disconnected from the EEG instruments and the data obtained was explained. Any questions the participants had were answered and credit compensation was then provided. Results Those who scored high in behavioral activation system on the Carver and White (1994) questionnaire showed small P300 amplitude. P300 amplitude also highlighted a positive correlation in regards to the rare stimulus: as BAS scores increased, P3b amplitude increased. The high BAS scores produced a longer latency on the P300, in comparison to the low BAS scores. Those who scored low in behavioral activation system had similar P300 amplitudes indicating a non-significant result among averages of the two groups. Those who scored low in BAS also exhibited a significantly shorter latency, meaning they were quicker to respond and categorize the incoming stimuli. Table 1. P3 amplitude and latency scores for high and low scores on BAS personality trait. Figure 1. Average of high and low BAS scores extracted from Pz component of EEG electrode using oddball paradigm ERP.kathleen curtis Graph averages P3 High and low.jpg Discussion The present study hypothesized that higher BAS scores would produce large P300 amplitude. The results showed inconsistency, as there is not a significant difference among those who scored high and low on the behavioral activation system scale in this study. The amplitudes at Fz, Cz and Pz were all relatively small and similar among low and high BAS scores. The significant data found in the results was the latency differences between high and low scores. Each electrode produced a significantly different result with the lower scores having shorter latencies. Those who scored higher on the Carver White (1994) BAS questionnaire respond slower to the evaluation of stimuli than those who scored lower. As both low and high scores generated similar amplitudes, generalizing previous studies of high BAS sensitivity and low P300 amplitude should be cautioned. The sample size of this study was small; therefore further research should increase this to obtain a more representative sample. The age of participants is also a factor that should be taken into consideration for this study, as alterations in behavioral activation and inhibition scores have been known to occur with time. The gender of the participants is a variable that should be recognized for future research as personality and gender could be interrelated. Also, the accuracy of the participants performance on the online questionnaires is a limitation for consideration and the stimuli may also not represent a true portrait of the construct. Both theoretical and neuropsychological explanations contribute the greatest understanding of constructs in psychology, such as personality. This is evident among the research conducted that involves the behavioral activation system. These advancements allow for the expansion and application of such knowledge to situations that have the potential to better society. For example, awareness of the behavioral activation and inhibition systems could aid the education systems to develop curriculum that is more suitable to the individual. Also, more intensive BIS/BAS measurements could potentially identify children/youth at risk and induce the early on set of proactive measures. It is obvious the possibilities are endless when the latest technology brings together science and theory.
Monday, August 19, 2019
Jackson Hole It was going to be the time of our lives. Four buddies of mine and I went out to Jackson, Wyoming to do some of the best snowboarding of our lives. It was our chance to get away from home for a week and have the best time of our lives. The trip out there was extremely boring driving through Iowa, Nebraska, and Wyoming. Possibly the three most boring states in the country. When we got out there we were all very impressed by the appearance of the city. This was obviously a tourist town. When we found the hotel we were impressed by the huge glass windows and cedar siding. It looked more like the Hilton than a Best Western. We checked in and were shown to our rooms. After bringing in all of our things, we went straight to bed knowing that we had a huge day ahead of us, not knowing how huge it was really going to be. After a great night of sleep we headed out to the world renown mountain of Jackson Hole. It is known for being the steepest mountain on which a ski resort is set up. It is also know for having a great view of Grand Teton, one of the highest peaks in the Rocky Mountains. We could not have asked for a better day of riding. there was a fresh 14Ã¢â¬ of snow under our boards and after a little bit of exploring we found some great out of bounds and woods riding. We looked around for a little while longer and Tom spotted a nice hit. It was an untouched field, with three 10-15Ã¢â¬â¢ drops which made for great hits. After hiking about a quarter of a mile we made it there. A quarter of a mile does not sound like that much of a walk but it is not as easy as it sounds when you are walking in snow past your knees deep, simply it took almost an hour and a half. We strapped in and took off, making huge carves in all the fresh powder that had probably not been ridden in at least a week. The first hit was coming and Tom shouted Ã¢â¬Å"hit it man,Ã¢â¬ As Dan and I approached the hit we got some big air. The only problem with riding such fresh snow is that when you land in that amount of fresh powder you sink like a rock.
Sunday, August 18, 2019
Oscar WildeÃ¢â¬â¢s The Importance of Being Earnest is a timeless comedy of manners in which two young, light-hearted men, pretend their names are Ã¢â¬ËErnestÃ¢â¬â¢ in a bid to impress their love interests, who both believe the name Ernest bestows magical qualities on the possessor. Throughout the play, Wilde uses a mix of social drama, melodrama and farce to appeal to the audience. Through his gentle use of parody Wilde is able to ridicule his contemporaries and attack the values and attitudes of Victorian society, such as; wealth, hierarchy, respectability, morality and self- interest. Via satirical dialogue and dramatic irony Wilde is able to reveal the moral hypocrisy at the heart of the Victorian era. The title Ã¢â¬Å"The importance of being EarnestÃ¢â¬ places an ironical importance on a plot about men leading Ã¢â¬Ëdouble livesÃ¢â¬â¢, lying to family and friends about their private lives, so they can take trips away and do the things they really want to do. Both Jack and Algernon lead a double life, a life separate from their family and friends; Jack uses his imaginary brother Ã¢â¬ËErnestÃ¢â¬â¢ to escape his life in the country. Whilst Algernon uses his imaginary friend Ã¢â¬ËBunburyÃ¢â¬â¢ to escape social gatherings, suggesting that both men find the stresses of society and their lives extremely restrictive, and in order to escape the constraints of society they must lie or deceive. Via his play Wilde claims that the majority of Victorian society wears some sort of social mask. Many critics have argued that each character depicted in the play is an extension of Wilde himself, and that Algernon and JackÃ¢â¬â¢s Ã¢â¬Ëdouble lifeÃ¢â¬â¢ represent WildeÃ¢â¬â¢s own alter ego which hid his homosexuality and many of his illicit affairs from a society that frowned upon homosexual acts. Through his p... ...being Earnest and other plays page 325 http://www.shmoop.com/importance-of-being-earnest/writing-style.html Oscar wilde the importance of being earnest and other plays page 304 http://www.thefreedictionary.com/earnest http://www.sparknotes.com/lit/earnest/themes.html Donohue and Berggren 1995, p.281 http://www.indiastudychannel.com/resources/111841-The-Title-The-Importance-Being-Earnest.aspx Kumaraditya Sarkar York notes, the importance of being earnest, pg. 6 The importance of being earnest and other plays Page 297 http://www.gradesaver.com/the-importance-of-being-earnest/study-guide/about/ 22/04/2012 http://sexualityinart.wordpress.com/2009/02/27/the-importance-of-being-earnest-a-comedy-of-manners-and-culture-revealing-double-lives-and-universal-truths/ 6/04/2012 http://dreamhawk.com/inner-life/the-importance-of-being-earnest/ 6/04/2012
Depression is a very big topic to discuss. The most commonly asked questions are: What is depression, and what disorders are related to depression? How common is depression? Is it serious? What treatment is used? And, What kind of symptoms should a person be looking for? Depression is more than the everyday ups and downs. You know when a person is depressed when their sad feelings interfere with their everyday life. Depression doesnÃ¢â¬â¢t only affect feelings, but can change behavior, physical health and appearance, academic performance, social activities, and the ability to make decisions that are face every day. The causes of depression are still unknown, but researchers have found a genetic link between most depressive disorders. Another depressive disorder is bipolar depression. Bipolar depression is when a person goes through mood cycles. The two common moods are being sad and down, but that can change to a very energetic mood quickly. Some things that can trigger a depressive episode are a serious loss, chronic illness, relationship problems, work stress, family crisis, financial setback, or any other unwelcome life change. Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Clinical depression is more common than most people think. More than nineteen million Americans are affected each year. One-fourth of all women and one-eighth of all men will suffer a depressive episode during their lifetimes. There are more teenagers that suffer from depression than adults. Four percent of all teens are diagnosed as clinically...
Saturday, August 17, 2019
Throughout history, women have been seen as inferior to men. In the novel, The House On Mango Street, the main character, Esperanza sees many examples of women who are treated lower by their husbands. These women are imprisoned in their own homes on Mango Street. The author, Sandra Cisneros uses the motif of Imprisoned Females to show that women have been seen as inferior to men. There were many chapters in the novel in which women were seen as inferior to men. On page 79 in the novel, Rafael gets locked indoors because her husband is afraid Rafaela will run away since she is too beautiful to look at. Rafael is just one of the many victims of Imprisoned Females on Mango Street. She is scared to leave because she thinks her husband will do something, he doesnÃ¢â¬â¢t want other man to take her away from him. Esperazana could also been considered a Ã¢â¬Å"Imprisoned Female. All she wants to do is live in a house she can call her own and be free but she is stuck on Mango Street where she meets all these other women who are stuck like her and she thinks she will never get out. Men treat women like they are nothing. Why? Because they are scared. Scared that women will leave them for someone better. Scared that women will tell someone of all the awful things they have done to them. Scared that women will finally tell the truth.
Friday, August 16, 2019
Firstly, the economic problem is split into three questions, which are: what to produce? How to produce? Who to produce for? These three questions can also be summed up as scarcity which is the inadequate amount of resources available. Consumers have wants which are unlimited; they would always want more, but due to the economic problem, scarcity, not everyone will get there Ã¢â¬ËwantÃ¢â¬â¢ fulfilled, therefore causing a problem. Different countries can attempt to overcome the economic problem in several ways; which is to apply a different economy system to their country.Due to scarcity consumers will now have to make a choice of what they want, by sacrificing the next best alternative when making a decision, this is known as opportunity cost. This is an example of an opportunity cost. Ã¢â¬Å"Airport operators like the GMR-led DIAL and GVK-led Mumbai International Airport Limited (MIAL) have argued that they could have invested the money raised in the form of security deposits fr om this land in any other venture they wanted. Ã¢â¬ Vikas Dhoot. (2012). Airport operators want opportunity cost for land security deposits. Available: http://articles. economictimes. ndiatimes. com/2012-01-27/news/30670362_1_security-deposits-airport-operators-airport-project. Last accessed 26th October 2012. Scarcity is fluctuated by the factors of production, when there is little factor of production the higher the scarcity and when higher the factor of production the lower the scarcity level. Factor of production combined create goods and services for consumers; these factor of production consist of labour, land, capital and enterprise. Labour are the individuals/employees who are part of this project to create goods and services for consumers.Labours are awarded with wages/salaries for their human effort in production. Land is the natural resource available, and this could be let out to firms, as the firm would pay them back via rent. Capital are assets used to produce goods , these are things as machinery, vehicle, factories. Finally, enterprise, someone who is initiative, risk taker and good leadership skill, as they are the one who created this project in first place to provide goods and service, maybe in order to maximise profit. Example of good entrepreneur is Steve Jobs who was all behind the creation of Apple and the success of it.Factors of production causes scarcity which in turns leads to people making choices due to the economy problem in the country; however countries do follow economy system to try and overcome these problems. These are: free market economy; mixed economy and command economy. All three handle with basic economic problem differently and are applied in many different countries. Free market economy is an economy system which is controlled by supply and demand and has very little or non-government influence. Hong Kong has been one of the freest market economy countries in the world. This year, however, several government moves have sparked renewed debate as to whether Hong Kong is abandoning its laissez-faire principles. Ã¢â¬ Cathy Yan. (2010). Face Off: Is Hong Kong Still a Free Market?. Available: http://blogs. wsj. com/hong-kong/2010/12/20/is-hong-kong-still-a-free-market/. Last accessed 26th October 2012 Some of the characteristics of the free market economy are that everyone is out there to make gains and maximise on them gains. The firms will maximise profit and consumers would have gained a good or service that they wanted.Majority of countryÃ¢â¬â¢s factor of production, land, are owned by a third party. They will be the private owner of the land which in turn they could rent out to a firm, to place their business in order to produce goods and service. The private owner would then get rent and will hope to maximise profit through the process, this also limits the governmentÃ¢â¬â¢s role. Since there is little or no government influences in free market economy, firms are able to sell anything they want but it is mainly productions of customerÃ¢â¬â¢s want.ItÃ¢â¬â¢ll be a free enterprise so no dictatorship telling labours where they have to work, labours can take any job they want. Also with no barriers to entry or exit it is easy for competition to enter the market and it will be a highly competitive market. Consumers will be looking for which firm can offer them the best deal on their wants whereas firms will be competing for customers and suppliers. Firms may have to give more to the suppliers in order to get them attracted to the firm and decrease price in order to attract consumers.Having competition it may be beneficial to a firm as they may be able to get ideas from a rival firm and yet do better than them. Ã¢â¬Å"Consider Microsoft's standard practice of absorbing any new and interesting technology into their operating system. In DOS 6 it was disk compression. In Windows 3. 11 it was network file access. In Windows 98 the target was the web browser. In Windows XP it may well be streaming multimedia. It's very hard to exist in a marketplace when one of your competitors is more or less giving away your
Thursday, August 15, 2019
UNIVERSITY OF NAMIBIA RESEARCH METHODS FOR VISUAL ARTS ANALYSIS OF A PAINTING YANA JAEGER 201124351 DUE DATE: 15 MARCH 2013 The purpose of this paper is to find a painting, describe it and analyse the piece. The structure of this assignment will be as follows: information about the artist, an overall description of the piece and a detailed analysis. For the conclusion, I shall attempt to interpret the work and give my personal views. The artwork I have selected is a painting done by Roberto Matta, titled Ã¢â¬Å"Eat Us Sir Fire, Eat UsÃ¢â¬ . Roberto Matta was born in Chile, Santiago 1911, and died in Italy, Civitavecchia 2002.Many artists influenced this painter, such as Dali, Duchamp, Picasso and Tanguy. The inspiration for his paintings and subject matter came from mythology, cosmology and microscopic images. MattaÃ¢â¬â¢s subject matter usually included paranoid visions of technology gone amuck, themes of Man versus Machine, otherworldly landscapes, alien beings involved in vari ous unexplainable activities, conflict, eroticism and whimsical fantasy. However, several of his works can be categorised as Ã¢â¬ËinscapesÃ¢â¬â¢. Ã¢â¬ËInscapesÃ¢â¬â¢ is a word created by two other words (also known as a portmanteau): interior and landscape.This conveys some idea of the artistÃ¢â¬â¢s psyche and state of mind. Basically, Ã¢â¬ËinscapesÃ¢â¬â¢ show what the artistÃ¢â¬â¢s mind would look like if it were splashed onto a canvas. Matta officially joined the Surrealist Movement in 1937. He was well-known as a Biomorphic Surrealist painter. For clarification: Surrealism was Ã¢â¬Å"A 20th Century movement in art and literature aiming at expressing the subconscious mind. Ã¢â¬ (The Concise Oxford Dictionary: 8th Edition, 1990, p. 1228) This movement was divided into two styles: Naturalistic and Biomorphic Surrealism.Biomorphic Surrealism can be described as natural occurring patterns or shapes indicative of nature. The images are usually not recognisable, but s ometimes they can be represented by cells or morphing shapes. Ã¢â¬Å"Eat Us Sir Fire, Eat UsÃ¢â¬ is an oil painting on canvas, created in 1988. The scale is rather large; due to the fact Matta was also inspired by Mexican Muralists, his work tended to be metres in size. It is in a landscape format, thus having a rectangular shape. The focal point is in the bottom left corner where one can see two animal-like figures and perhaps a human figure, holding a jug/vase, standing behind them.Above these figures there is a bright yellow dot, possibly representing the sun or a spark. In the centre is the fire, but it is not clearly recognisable. The only clue to knowing it is the fire is the bright red paint mixed within the shapes and patterns. In the centre right, one can see two feline-type figures facing the fire. The art elements I shall be using to analyse this piece are line, form, tone, colour, composition, style and emotion. Matta used both black and white lines in his artwork. He used them to outline his figures and create random shapes and patterns.The lines are very clear, juxtaposed, some are thin, some are thick and he also incorporated both straight and curved lines. Most of the straight lines lead the eye to the figures in the left bottom corner. There are a variety of small forms with a few dispersed larger forms in this image. The forms are angular and curved and slightly broken, similar to the Cubistic style. The larger forms are placed on either side of the canvas with the smaller forms/shapes placed clustered together in the centre. Matta was famous for using vivid and bright acidic colours in his work. This piece is no different.He used bright red, yellow, acerbic green, orange, a bit of brown, black and white. Red and orange was used for the fire in the centre, yellow for the sky in the top row and left column (Golden Section), green in the right column and bottom row (also Golden Section), black shadows in the entire bottom and centre rows, wh ite for the smoke in the top row and the figures on the left, and lastly brown in the left bottom corner on the rabbit-sort figure. The tones are quite dark, mainly in the bottom and centre where the black shadows are seen, with a bit of lighter tones on the animal figures and the sky.The composition is well balanced due to the placement of the colours and figures. The position of the animals on the sides and the fire in the centre creates a three panelled division in the image. The two Golden Sections created by the yellow and green, creates a sort of diagonal division from the top right corner to the left bottom corner. The lightness of the sky creates a division from the darkness of the earth on the bottom two rows. Clearly Matta used the Golden Grid Rule in this artwork. MattaÃ¢â¬â¢s style is very abstract and biomorphic.Nothing is really recognisable, but one is only given a sense of what is going on in this image. At first, feelings of panic, chaos, urgency, angst and heat a re generated from this artwork, but on closer inspection, one feels a sense of calm, warmth and amazement. I feel a sense of emergency created by the fire and its close proximity to the animals, fearing for their safety. However, I also feel a sense of awe and readiness from the animals staring into the fire, as if waiting for something. Possibly the fire is so beautiful that the animals do not feel the need to run away from it.They are all facing towards it, felling no fear. They could be looking at it admirably, or in wonder, transfixed. It reminds me of the Native Americans, the way they huddle near a fire while the sun sets, telling each other stories. It especially reminds me of the theatrics of the medicine-man, who flings dust into the fire creating sparks and heavy smoke, and then ghostly images form in the flames and smoke. This is a form of fortune-telling, to create assurance and set the peopleÃ¢â¬â¢s minds at ease, but this is also used to advise the people to remain a ware and head the warnings.In the title, Matta calls the fire Ã¢â¬ËSirÃ¢â¬â¢. This could have been his way of saying that the fire has a higher status and should be respected. It portrays the fire as noble and honourable. Even though the fire seems as if it is out of control, the animals and human look at it intently, and do not hurry in the opposite direction. This blends well with the title Ã¢â¬ËEat UsÃ¢â¬â¢, meaning that they are willing to be consumed by the fire. It is possible that this image could be erotic in some way. Dreaming of animals usually represents the subliminal animalistic tendencies of the dreamer, and fire symbolises passion, desire and sex.It could be conceivable that Matta was trying to portray an animalistic love or lust in humans, and we have a subconscious desire to be consumed by it. We secretly yearn to become wild, be devoured by lust, have sex with no attachments and do it for the physical pleasure alone. A very Freudian way of interpreting this painting, I think. Yet perhaps Matta was only trying to say that one should not be afraid of the fire, rather respect and be in awe of it. But what does the fire represent? Itself, or something deeper and more psychological?All in all, this is a very colourful and chaotic piece. It leaves many questions in oneÃ¢â¬â¢s mind, but that is what makes MattaÃ¢â¬â¢s work so enticing; trying to figure out what he was thinking and what he may have revealed about himself, filling the canvas with landscapes of mystery and obscurity. Image Eat Us Sir Fire, Eat us Roberto Matta 1988 Oil on Canvas References 1. The Concise Oxford Dictionary: 8th Edition. (1990). New York: Oxford University Press 2. Rock, T. (1997). Matta Art. Retrieved 13 March 2013, http://www. matta-art. com/
Wednesday, August 14, 2019
Academic journals are periodicals in which scholarly material relating to a certain academic discipline is published and reviewed. These peer-reviewed periodicals provide a platform through which new topics or ideas pertaining to that particular discipline can be introduced, researched and debated upon. The articles published are details of original research conducted by one or a group of stakeholders, reviews of book publications related to the discipline, and are therefore sometimes commonly referred to as professional magazines. They range from journals of science to applied technology, journalism, social sciences and humanities. In the professional circles, there is a habit of any willing interested party making unsolicited submissions of their research and discoveries, opinions or articles to these professional magazines. Usually, a bench of editors peruses the submitted entries to determine their quality and relevance and therefore choose which entries they are going to publish and those that are going to be published. Once an article has been published, any interested parties are free to respond either in support or criticizing the information published therein. This is what is called peer reviewing (Effs. org, 2009). Reviewing involves the checking of progress on the research of topics published in these professional journals. This process covers progressive research either on a long term or short term depending on the topic concerned. The reason for journal awards is that the prestige of an academic journalÃ¢â¬â¢s award establishes itself over time; the dominant academic journals consequently receive the highest number of submissions and are consequently the preferred choice of seeking the relevant information and opinion regarding a certain topical issue. It is for this reason that certain journals dominate over others in terms of relevancy and credibility. For example in the United States of America, the American Historical Review and the Journal of American History have been able to stamp their authority over most of the other related journals. The ranking of journals is based on the prestige derived from their accuracy, relevance and professional reverence of their most frequent contributors. In the fields of technology and applied science, it is easier to establish the top most journals but when it comes to the social sciences, it becomes very hard to rank these journals mostly on account of the diverse nature of the opinions available and the scope of the discipline. The approach used here is estimating the impact factor, that is counting the total number of submissions following the publishing of all particular original submissions and also counting the number of citations based on the publications (Carl, 2000). The duration through which submissions are continually cited, also called the half life, is an important criteria of gauging the impact of a particular journal. In virtually every professional discipline, it is very important that the industry players get a feedback to gauge the standards and the levels of professionally time over time. To increase competitiveness, progress and professional integrity, different foundations have initiated programs of awarding excellence (Clapp, 2003). Individuals who have demonstrated extraordinary professional standards are awarded depending on merit and this acts as a source of motivation to the recipients but also to their competitors and partners to put the specific industry on the course of achieving greater heights. The importance of the media on contemporary society cannot under any circumstances be underestimated. It is the media that is on the forefront of creating awareness on the most relevant topical issues directly affecting people. From politics to the economy, human rights to diseases and education, the influence of the media is the most significant. It is not a surprise that most people base their interpretation of topical issues almost always based on how the media has put the facts on paper (Wheeler, 2009). It is for this reason that there has been a lot of effort geared towards ensuring that the media is impartial, relevant and correct on the issues that are of most significance to society as its role in determining how they are received by society in general is insurmountable. To increase integrity in this important industry, very many civil, corporate, governmental and even private organizations have come up with numerous awards all aimed at rewarding excellence and increasing journalistic standards. Among these, perhaps the most significant is the award gala night organized by the International Centre for Journalists (ICJ). Each and every year, the ICT holds an award dinner in honor of the achievements and feats accomplished by its fellows. These awards honor those journalists who have, for the preceding year, demonstrated an extraordinary commitment to the cause and have exhibited the most commendable professional standards (Mackenzie, 2007). This colorful event brings together those journalism professionals from the United States of America as well as from overseas countries, who have made the headlines, constantly putting their lives and safety on the line to bring in the news as it is from the harshest and most hostile locations around the world. They are a perfect demonstration of a passionate commitment of excellent news collection and pointblank reporting. Another significant excellence award by the journalism industry is held by The Canadian Journalism Foundation. Started just over ten years ago, the Excellence in Journalism Award has continued to gain credibility over the years. It is now one of the most prestigious journalistic awards held annually and is the only award of its kind given to a media organization for exhibiting an overall excellence in journalistic performance (Chism, 2006). The Excellence in Journalism Award aims to recognize an outstanding dedication to the cause of journalism. Sponsored jointly by the Jackman Foundation and the Canadian Journalism Foundation, the Excellence in Journalism Award has the overall objective of embracing and enhancing the social and political ideals of citizenship under a working democratic system, rigor and professionalism in journalistic practice, honesty and independence in ideology, accuracy in information collection and accountability (Fredrick, 1995). The award also rewards initiative and an artistic flair in information presentation and clarity. The excellence in Journalism award has winners in two separate categories. One award is dedicated to small and medium sized media houses from the locality (that is within Canada) and the North American region while the second category is for the large national and international media houses. The next awards are scheduled to be held on the fifth day of March this year. The Radio Frequency Identification (RFID) Journal Awards are the other main journalistic awards. Specifically targeting the radio broadcasting industry, he awards are aimed at recognizing those radio companies that have stood out from among their competitors in terms of successfully using the technology of Radio Frequency Identification. The RIFD journal, to ensure a relevant and trustworthy, has put in place a panel of qualified judges who undertake the work of evaluating all competitors and eventually choosing the winner (Burnett, 2000). The aim of these awards is to encourage the application of the radio frequency identification in radio broadcasting and award the winner in this sector. The RIFD has five distinct award categories fro the best implementers of the radio frequency identification technology, the company that has best used frequency identification to enhance their service and the quality of their service to their clients and a special achievement award (PressRelease. com, 2009). Other influential journals include the Harvard Law Review, The Academy of Management Journal and the American Journal of Sociology for the discipline of Social Sciences, the Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences and the Proceedings of the Royal Society and Science in the area of general sciences. In the specific sciences, the leading journals are the Archives of Sexual behavior, Industrial Engineering and Industry Research and the Journal of the American Mathematical Society (Wankat, 2005). The reason why journals hold award giving events is to award leading contributors for their commitment and research in a particular discipline and therefore encouraging research and progress. The prestige of any intellectual society is directly derived from the relevance and applicability of their findings; therefore by awarding leading researchers, there is every potential of encouraging further leaders and nurturing the aspirations of future scholars and therefore ensuring intellectual continuity.