Thursday, November 28, 2019
Nuclear energy is a source of sustainable electricity and power. Globally, nuclear energy accounts for six percent of energy used for various purposes. For instance, studies indicate that nuclear energy generates approximately 14 percent of electricity used in the world. Very few countries in the world have the capacity to harness nuclear power and utilize it effectively.Advertising We will write a custom report sample on Sustainable Energy Source Ã¢â¬â Nuclear Energy specifically for you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More Only thirty one countries in the world have nuclear energy plants (National Statistics 2001). Some of the countries which have made progress in producing nuclear energy, are the United States of America, Japan and France. These three nations use nuclear energy predominantly for generating electricity. Over the years there have been heated debates in conjunction to nuclear energy production. These debates seem to be between two grou ps. One of the groups led by World Nuclear Association, believes that nuclear energy is a reliable and efficient source of energy. The other group led by Greenpeace International refers nuclear energy to as dangerous. In addition, they argue that nuclear energy poses great threat to living things and environment. In comparison with other energy production technologies, nuclear energy is safer. This fact puts nuclear energy in a better chance of being utilized in the future (McKean 2006). Despite various groups and individuals expressing their concerns on the threat posed by nuclear energy, it has numerous advantages when compared to other energy sources. The advantages of nuclear energy are that it serves as an alternative energy source when oil and coal are limited. Nuclear energy requires small amount of fuel as compared to fossil fuels. Small amount of uranium is consumed in nuclear energy plants in comparison to other fuel sources. Some of energy sources pollute environment (Mic hael 1988). For instance burning oil and coal is major air pollutants. Disadvantages of nuclear energy are that the radiation emitted from the nuclear reactants is detrimental to human body. It can cause human cells death leading to illness or death. Also, there is a major challenge in disposing waste from nuclear reactors. This is due to radiation emitted from nuclear waste which can cause cells damage (Roger 1999). There are several ways through which nuclear energy would influence my career, life and future. They include:Advertising Looking for report on environmental studies? Let's see if we can help you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Personal income Nuclear power energy plants are costly to establish. It costs government billions of dollars to establish nuclear energy power plants. The cost of constructing nuclear energy is high but the low fuel expenses give a sigh of relieve. To compare the economic implications with other energy sources, one has to put in consideration some of dependency issues like large amount of fossil fuel required and coal. Also, one should consider the economic implications of nuclear waste storage and disposal in nuclear energy. Additionally, it is essential to put in consideration the cost in measures undertaken during global warming mitigation. Reduction in electricity demand is a challenge to these nuclear energy plants which require financial support to operate effectively and efficiently (Practical Guide 1995). Future uncertainties should be considered during nuclear power economic analysis. In most countries running nuclear power plants, risks related to cost of construction, accident liability and performance operations, are passed to consumer. Nuclear accident liability magnitude is great to such an extent that only government has an obligation for compensation (Stephen 2001). Scenario For instance, I am living in a country which for years has struggled with high running cost related to use o f fossil fuel and coal to generate electricity. The government comes up with the plan to start up a nuclear energy plant that is cheaper and more reliable to run than other energy sources. In order to raise enough capital to construct this plant, the government increases taxes on consumer goods. It also, decides to increase the income tax on worker salary in order to raise enough revenue to build the plant. Such scenario will affect my personal life by reducing my net salary and increasing my daily expenses. Risks Likelihood Impact Level of risk Opportunities likelihood Impact Level of risk 1. Increase in personal daily expenses 2. Reduction in net salary 3 3 3 4 9 12 1. Reduction in electricity and power bill 2. Access to reliable energy source 3 3 3 4 9 12 Likelihood: 1- unlikely; 5-Most likely Impact: 1-Negligible; 5-dramtic Accident and safety Many nuclear accidents have occurred before. The most recent nuclear energy accident was Fukushima Daiichi nuclear disaster in 20 11. These accidents are precipitated by some of factors such as lack of passively safe nuclear energy plants and poor means to dispose nuclear fusion. Accidents caused by nuclear energy have high economic implications as compared to other energy sources.Advertising We will write a custom report sample on Sustainable Energy Source Ã¢â¬â Nuclear Energy specifically for you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More Scenario Assume a scenario of workers in a particular nuclear plant. Due to poor safety measures in this plant fire breaks out. Some of the workers suffer severe burns. This scenario will influence these workersÃ¢â¬â¢ life. Some of them may suffer form psychological trauma and affect their normal life for along time. Risks Likelihood Impact Level of risk Opportunities likelihood Impact Level of risk 1. Sustaining injuries at work place 2. Unexpected expenses related to accidents 3 3 3 4 9 12 1. Mitigate and disaster preparedness 2. Educate n uclear workers on safety measures 3 3 4 4 12 12 Likelihood: 1- unlikely; 5-Most likely Impact: 1-Negligible; 5-dramtic Environmental changes Nuclear reactors emission negatively affect the climate. Increasing nuclear plants in the world has continued to cause climatic changes. It has been established that nuclear emission have detrimental effects on Ozone layer which protects living things on the Earth surface from harmful ultra violet rays. According to Institute of Energy (1998), climatic changes experienced due to effects of nuclear emission include increased heat waves and frequent droughts. Release of nuclear emissions and nuclear waste in the environment has contributed to oceans and riversÃ¢â¬â¢ pollution being harmful to aquatic life. Scenario Assume a scenario with drastic climate change after adapting nuclear energy as source of energy. Due to climate change the temperature rises and starts to experience drought spells. This climatic change will affect life of those w ho are dependent on good climate. Risks Likelihood Impact Level of risk Opportunities likelihood Impact Risk level 1.Experiencing intolerable conditions for living things 2.Death of living things like aquatic life and plants 4 4 4 4 16 16 1.Inventing method of controlling nuclear emissions and waste 2.Educating people on importance of environment conservation 3 3 3 4 9 12 Likelihood: 1- unlikely; 5-Most likely Impact: 1-Negligible; 5-dramtic Responses plan for high priority/ risks opportunities associated with key areas mentioned above:Advertising Looking for report on environmental studies? Let's see if we can help you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Increase in personal daily expenses: In the process of constructing a nuclear energy plants, government will require to pass the cost to its people by increasing salary taxes or increasing value added tax on goods. It is important for government to frequently inform and educate its people on the project progress and its benefits. Levying these taxes should be done in realistic criteria to avoid burdening of the people. Reduction in electricity and power bill: After installing nuclear energy plant, the cost of electricity production will reduce. Building a nuclear power plant is expensive, but running it is cheap as compared to other sources of energy like the coal and fossil fuel. In addition, energy production from nuclear source is reliable and efficient as compared to other energy sources. Benefits of decreased cost in electricity production should be passed to consumers by reducing electricity charges. Experiencing intolerable conditions for living things: Nuclear reactors emis sion and waste are harmful to the environment. Emissions from nuclear plants are among the factors contributing to depletion of Ozone layer. This has led global climate change like experiencing of droughts more often and increasing of atmospheric temperature. Waste from nuclear plants which drain to rivers and oceans have destroyed aquatic life (Gate Hauser 1988). Measures should be taken to find safe methods of controlling emission and waste from nuclear energy plants. Public education is important to enlighten people on importance and measures of conserving the environment. Summary report This article analyzes nuclear energy affects on my life, career and future as a megatrend. Personal income is one aspect that affected construction of nuclear energy plants. Nuclear power energy plants are costly to establish. It costs government billions of dollars to establish nuclear power plants. The cost of constructing nuclear energy plant is high however; low fuel expense is one of its p ositive factors. Relating to accident and safety, many nuclear accidents have occurred before. These accidents are precipitated by some of factors such as lack of passively safe nuclear energy plants and poor means to dispose nuclear fusion. To sum it up, nuclear energy causes environmental changes. Emission from nuclear reactors negatively affect the climate. Increasing nuclear plants in the world have continued to cause further climatic changes. References Gate, R Hauser, D 1988, Chernobyl: The Final Warning, Education Australia, Sydney. Institute of Energy1998, Nuclear Energy: The Future. Viewed on www.instenenergy.org.uk/events/Nuclear%20summary%20paper.pdf. McKean, R 2006, Justification for Nuclear Power. Viewed on www.sone.org.uk/item2.htm Michael, C 1988, An Introduction environmental and resource economics, Longman, Group UK. National Statistics 2001, Energy consumption in the United Kingdom, OECD, Paris, France. Practical Guide 1995, Economic appraisal of environmental pro jects and policies, Proquest LLC: Houston, Texas. Roger, P 1999, Natural resource and environmental economics, 2nd edn, Longman, New York. Stephen, K 2001, Nuclear power in a World of Liberalized energy Market. Viewed on www.ecolo.org/documents/documents_in_english/Nuclear_economics_kidd_02.htm This report on Sustainable Energy Source Ã¢â¬â Nuclear Energy was written and submitted by user Mina Lester to help you with your own studies. You are free to use it for research and reference purposes in order to write your own paper; however, you must cite it accordingly. You can donate your paper here.
Sunday, November 24, 2019
Emission Spectrum Essays Emission Spectrum Essay Emission Spectrum Essay The purpose of this lab on Emission Spectroscopy was to see that when elements are heated, they may enter and excited state. We proved this by doing a flame test. During Part A, we used a spectroscope where all of the colors are arranged for you; whereas in Part B, we could see and make the colors ourselves and get a more accurate reading of the flames. We had specific elements we were told to put on the wire loop, and when we did that we saw different color flames come out of the Bunsen burner. That enabled out group to see the element in an excited state. The unknown element was lithium. This is known because if the color of the flame produced. The group I was in got mainly all the correct colored flames, but the few that were incorrect happened because the wire loop wasnt completely clean and there was still residue from the other elements. Overall, our group learned what it meant for an element to enter an excited state. Emission Spectroscopy excited state.
Thursday, November 21, 2019
Corporations Law Research - Essay Example self.Ã¢â¬ 1 Corporate self interest has placed the generation of profits and protection of that profit from creditors on a plane far higher than the obligation to function in a moral, ethical manner, deserving of the status of personhood granted to it under the law. Korten D has pointed out how the corporation evolved as a means to limit the liabilities of individual investors to the extent of their investments while also imposing obligations to transfer a share of its profits to the crown.1a What has emerged however, is a system whereby every corporation strives to expand its own interests while limiting its obligations. The corporate veil has been zealously guarded thus far, since the facility of limited liability available to a corporation has been deemed fundamental in the propagation of a capitalist economy2. However, Adam Smith underlined the restriction of competition that corporations symbolize3. The strengthening of corporate interests after the Civil War in America led President Lincoln to foresee corporate greed as follows: However the turning point for corporations appeared with the decision in the case of Santa Clara County v Southern pacific Railroad5 in which the corporation was declared to be a natural person under the U.S. Constitution entitled to the protection offered by the Bill of Rights. By placing them on par with individual citizens in permitting their influence upon Government, the powers of the Corporations to influence legislation was therefore unequally balanced against individual powers.6 The case of Solomon v Salomon & Co Ltd7 established the corporation as a distinct legal entity in common law, with an existence and personality separate from the people that comprise it. This has provided the facility for small agencies and businesses to assume a corporate form functioning as a front that shields the agency/individuals from creditors rather than being purely directed towards raising capital for risky business purposes7a. The
Wednesday, November 20, 2019
Marketing audit or environmental scanning - Essay Example During the contemporary period, it can be noted that organisations operate in an environment that is characterised by both internal as well as external factors over which the company in some cases has very little control.From a marketing perspective, this is referred to as marketing audit or environmental scanning (Lancaster & Reynolds 1999). Both the external as well as internal environments have a bearing on the way an organisation operates. Against this background, this report seeks to critically analyse and explore some of the external as well as the internal factors that affect the operations of LVMH Moet Hennessy particularly in the fashion and leather goods sector using PESTEL analysis, SWOT analysis, PorterÃ¢â¬â¢s Five Forces model as well as the TOWS matrix model. It starts by outlining a brief historical background of the organisation in question for the sake of easier understanding then followed by an analysis of the above mentioned tools for scanning the environment in which the organisation operates and this analysis will be limited to the geographical location of UK. In essence, scanning the environment enables the marketing managers of an organisation to be better positioned to know the situation obtaining on the ground for them to be able to gain a competitive advantage. Background According to its official website, world leader in luxury, LVMH Moet Hennessy - Louis Vuitton possesses a unique portfolio of over 60 prestigious and the group is active in five different sectors: wines and spirits, fashion and leather goods, perfumes and cosmetics, watches and jewellery, selective retailing (http://www.lvmh.com/groupe/pg_mot.asp?rub=2&srub=0). The report will specifically focus on fashion and leather goods sector by Louis Vuitton, a trunk-maker in Paris since 1854 which became a legend in the art of travel by creating luggage, bags and accessories as innovative as they were elegant and practical. Specific focus in this report will be limited to the activities of the organisation in UK especially on how the micro and macro environments are impacting on the organisation using the tools for analysis mentioned above. PESTEL analysis for Louis Vuitton PESTEL stands for factors which may affect the operations of business such as political, economic, social, technological, environmental as well as legal factors (Lancaster & Reynolds 1999). These are explained in detail below and appendix 1 shows a summary of the major points noted. This is a very useful tool in analysing the environment in which an organisation operates. It can be noted that there are various factors that affect the operations of any given organisation and these have to be taken into consideration by an organisation that is serious about its viability so as to achieve competitive advantage (Kottler 1999). Any given organisation is guided by certain factors that so as to ensure that it does not violate the needs and interests of the consumers as well as the other sta keholders. Political In UK, there are policies that govern the operations of all organisations that are involved in manufacturing of different products so as to meet the expected standards. Consumer law in UK is effective and under the EU law, every big organisation like Louis Vuitton is expected to protect the needs and interests of the customers. It can be noted that the current political environment prevailing in the EU is not exploitative which is seen as the reason why exclusive manufactures like Louis Vuitton continue enjoying growth and expansion since inception to the present day. Economic factors The organisation has not been spared by the impacts of the recent global economic recession though it managed to bounce back in the first half of 2010. By virtue of specialising in producing only exclusive products with premium prices, the operations of the organisation are likely to be affected during turbulent times given that premium prices charged are specifically meant for a f ew people who can shift their buying behaviour which negatively impacts on
Sunday, November 17, 2019
Case Study - Essay Example Basement and much of first floor occupying the administrative office, emergency room, operations, and cafeteria were flooded to about six feet. When we inspected the premises to put up a temporary office along with surgical suites and clinical laboratory on the second floor, which was not affected by flood water, we noticed heaps of trash and debris. The task I was assigned, to guide Incident Commander on the safe entry, cleanup procedure, appropriate PPE for all recovery works, and hazard assessment for the most critical items or operations that can cause acute or chronic health effects, illness or disease, was most challenging. We recognized that without organizational skills and knowledge of time tested processes we will achieve little with manpower, massive resources, and technical expertise. Only through a definite written plan, adequate training and basic safety knowledge of the workers engaged in cleaning, and a centralized control and coordination such a herculian activity could be materialized. To achieve the goal, following broad overview of the duties and recommendations has been chartered, according to priority, and submitted to the Incident Commander: Ã¢â¬Å"Industrial hygienists recognize that engineering, work practice, and administrative controls are the primary means of reducing employee exposure to occupational hazards. Engineering controls minimize employee exposure by either reducing or removing the hazard at the source or isolating the worker from the hazards.Ã¢â¬ (NOSH interim recommendations for the cleaning and remediation of flood-contaminated HVAC system: A guide for building owner and managers, 2004). Being a hospital, the main Industrial Hygiene concerns for our team and the clean-up recovery workers were exposure to skin and respiratory disorders. It is possible that during flooding the systems for heating, ventilation, and air conditioning (HVAC) could
Friday, November 15, 2019
Analysis Of Mary Shelleys Frankenstein Possibly one of the very best works of literature of all time is the novel Frankenstein by Mary Shelley. It is a worldwide known book, and there have been countless film adaptations, sequels, and retellings of it. As one reads this novel he or she will more than likely be able to relate to the story or the characters in some way or another. It makes a great analysis project also. Things that readers are likely to find when researching this book are the interesting way Shelley came up with the idea of the book, the differences in film adaptations and the actual novel, the view of both science fiction and horror in the book, the relationship between creature and creator, the different interpretive levels the story has to offer, and the way Shelley related a lot of the topics of the story to the political community. A very interesting topic to research when it comes to this novel is how it actually came into existence. The tale began to form in the year 1816 as a result of a ghost-story-telling session between Mary Shelly, her husband, and a couple friends when the Shelleys were in Switzerland. They decided to have a contest to see who could write the scariest story in one weekend. It took her a few days to get inspiration, but she eventually got her waking dream. She said that what terrified her would terrify others, and she needed only to describe the specter which had haunted her midnight pillow. The story and its monster-hero eventually became such a well known and popular subject for film and stage that many acquaint themselves with the creature before even reading the book itself. Most first-time readers shockingly discover that the monster remains unnamed throughout the whole book, and the creators name is actually Frankenstein. The novel can be difficult for modern readers to understand, with an older form of language and a plot that has less action or suspense than expected. Usually readers discover a much more intimate view into the lives of Victor and his creation than they would with the movies. Frankenstein is a novel thought of as both horror and science fiction. Although the reader is more than likely horrified and disturbed by the events that happen, Victor Frankensteins creature is not born by magic or the supernatural but by scientific principles. It is true that it is terrifying to think the morbid events in this story, but they are done in the name of science. For example, Victor gathers the dead body parts, but he is doing it to have supplies for his experiments. The very core of this story is the intensely bitter relationship between Victor Frankenstein and his creation. Victor creates the creature but is afraid of it after doing so. He completely rejects it and doesnt even give it a chance to show if its good or evil. Victor just automatically assumes that its an evil monster. At one point in the story the creature tells Victor to remember that he is Victors creature and that he ought to be his Adam, but instead Victor treats him like the fallen angel. This shows that the creature feels hurt by the way his creator is acting, and therefore may not be a monster. Perhaps Victor Frankenstein is the actual monster here. When one is reading Frankenstein the novel intends the reader to see Victor Frankenstein as stealing creative fire from heaven in order to make a creature, who most people call a monster. One of the only reasons this creature is even referred to as a monster is because of what Hollywood has done to the story. In spite of the creatures crimes, he is as much angel as he his monster. The traditional movies dont show the true side of the creature or the creator. There is a significant difference in Hollywoods depiction of this relationship between creator and creation and the original story. One way to measure the distance in Mary Shelleys daemon and Hollywoods monster is to try to imagine the film monsters being self-educated by reading Miltons Paradise Lost. The original creature does exactly that, and actually receives a great education. Unlike Victor, who has lack of imagination, the creature has great sensibility. As a matter of fact, critics normally agree that Victor and his creation are two halves of the same being, somehow divided against itself. This is how most critics believe the confusion came about in Hollywood giving the creature the name Frankenstein. Readers realize that, in the actual novel, the creatures sympathy far surpasses Victors. Frankenstein exerts a very strong hold on the readers imagination because it works on so many different interpretive levels. Beyond its appeal as a gripping tale of morbid horror, it is also a myth of technological arrogance showing what happens when man attempts to rival the laws of God and mother nature. Victors is the tale of an out of control ego whose drive for power is self-destructive in the end. From another point of view, it is the exploration and creation itself, both creative act and psychical birth, posing questions of responsibility and consequence. At a psychological level Frankenstein and the creature may possibly represent two combined aspects of a broken psychic whole, with the creature enacting murderous desires that Victor simply ignores. The novel also treats societys sin in blocking out disturbing aspects of human nature that challenge us to second guess what we conceive as monstrous. Is it that it resides with the creature, or does it reside with the denial of l ove that he wants? The story of the way Victor treats his creation remains part of a tale that has just as strong a message against humans acting outside rational thinking now as it did two hundred years ago when Mary Shelley wrote the novel. It can be directly compared to an irresponsible father refusing to take responsibility for their children. As strange or comical as it may seem, this process can actually be compared to how some of fathers are when it comes to sexual intercourse. He was engulfed in the idea of creating this creature. He was overwhelmed with the process leading up to giving it life, but when the creature came alive Victor realized what he had done and refused to have anything to do with it. This leads to a very popular question about the book. Is the creature the monster for killing and causing so much trouble over wanting to be loved, or is Victor Frankenstein the monster for not loving and taking responsibility for what he has done? Now, if one does a close analysis of this novel there is actually a lot to that the reader can see. In Victors attempt to create life in his laboratory, he makes a somewhat frightening being. At the same time the being has great sensitivity and intellect. After Victor does this deed, he considers his actions to be a crime against mankind. He thinks that he has crossed the boundaries of forbidden intelligence, and he realizes that he failed to take responsibility for what he has unleashed upon the world. In consequence, Victor Frankenstein places himself, and his creation, beyond all possibility of forgiveness and redemption. Its true that the reader can tell the Victor Frankenstein apart from his creature, but can be difficult to tell what to make of them. Victor Frankenstein is a young man who comes from a nurturing family, and the creature is something completely different than human. Sure hes made from human, but they were dead human parts. Hes simply made up of dead body parts that were brought to life by an electric current and the brilliance of a very curious student. The question remains as to the true essence and nature of Victor Frankenstein and his creation. It is hard to speak of them separately. The creature is Victors daemon and is type of manifestation of his subconscious personality. Victor probably never imagined how the birth of his creature would turn out or what consequences would result from it. There are actually ways that Victor Frankenstein and his creation can be compared to a plant, however this will require some explanation. There are basic properties that plants must have. The plant is an organism, starting as a seed, with the entire thing being greater than the sum of all of its parts. In its natural state, it grows and manifests. It evolves spontaneously from some type of internal source of energy. Its structure is organic whereas a machine is just a combination of things whose parts can be substituted. From a physical point of view, Victor Frankenstein is clearly a human being. The son of Alphonse and Caroline Frankenstein. While growing up, he is intelligent, sensitive, and a very responsible person who starts his education at the University of Ingolstadt. He has a huge enthusiastic love for the natural sciences. However, its this enthusiasm that eventually brings him to his own downfall as he becomes seduced by his own personal abilities to surpass the rest of the scientists that came before him. This all begins at the very moment he gives life to the creature he has assembled together. Starting from his creatures creation onward, Victor Frankensteins mental and physical well-being are terribly interrupted and continuously become increasingly unstable as he is aggravated and just sickened by the deed he has done. The most important thing, though, is Victors belief and overwhelming fear that he must not ever tell what he has done. So, he vows to never tell another soul of his doin gs, and can never again act ethically. Victor Frankenstein forfeits his integrity as a result of his experiment and the transgressions that it implies. Victor becomes more and more speechless and it gets harder for him to even communicate with others. As a very extreme result of his lack of integrity he is unable to testify during Justines trial, and he becomes responsible for her undeserved execution. In the creatures case, he is a manufactured being who was put together from body parts that Victor Frankenstein went around collecting from grave sites and crypts. The creature is made up of dead matter that is missing an organizational plan, and Victor has no idea of how or whether the disparate parts will even work. Victor Frankenstein just learns as he gets further into the construction of his being and makes adjustments as needed. The creature is being condemned to loneliness and he is rejected by all who look at him, but he is very sentient. The creature develops amazing language skills and eventually convinces Victor Frankenstein that he is obligated to at least create him a female companion. The creature agrees with Victor that he will go out into the wilderness away from all civilization forever with his wife, as long as Victor will create her for him. Its almost like the creature has stolen Victor Frankensteins powers of articulation and surpassed him as well. We really dont have any evidence of Victors previous rhetorical skills. The monster plays with the readers sympathies and, although one probably wouldnt uphold him for the crimes of murder and all of the chaos that he has caused, the novel allows you to understand the motives that drives him to do those horrendous acts. In the moments when the creature acts out of love and desire to be a part of the human civilization, the creature acts with integri ty. So basically, the monsters possession of human characteristics appears to be because of Victor Frankensteins dehumanization, blurring the distinctions between the human and mechanical being. Mary Shelley could have very well titled her work Ã ¢Ã¢â ¬Ã âOne Catastrophe after Another.Ã ¢Ã¢â ¬Ã Victor Frankenstein is in love with his own disastrous history and thinks about his creation all the time. The night of the creation is actually the fateful event to which all the other catastrophe in the story follows. So much hardship follows people in this tale, but Victor Frankenstein is the chief victim. Not only does he have to live with the fact that he created what he thinks is a hideous monster, but he also has to live with the fact of knowing that he is responsible for all of the grief that has fallen on the world from his creation. Upon reading and examination, one can see that this novel is deeply interested in a certain kind of social union; the political community. The book was written in 1818 which was the time period between revolution and reform. Mary Shelleys novel raises discussions and theorizations of the political community. In her novel Shelley engages with certain political debates by depicting characters who endeavor to attach themselves to others, like the creature. On Montanvert, Victor Frankenstein declares that there can be no community among enemies. This voices Shelleys belief that hostility and alienation are unavoidable characteristics of the human condition. It also draws some attention with the books preoccupation with building new communities. All of the characters in Shelleys novel long for companionship, whether it be longing for a father, longing to be married, etc.. So one of the principal tasks the story sets for the characters is the building of social community. In contemplating new communities on new terms, Mary Shelley uses her creature to interrogate the basis and boundaries of certain social groups. The creature, in a sense, represents a version of a man, put together by carefully picked out body parts, just as government is carefully assembled of different people. The creatures origins, however, meant that he is unaffiliated with others. He is looked at as a person but not a citizen. He isnt naturalized nor socialized with any certain community. He is the novels main community seeker. Because the creature is self-dependent and is related to no one he must seek out membership in different groups that dont rely on ties of intimacy, ancestry, or memories as a necessity for inclusion. However, what is very intriguing about Mary Shelleys novel is that she chose to stage the creatures searches for community and acceptance around the most intimate of social groups, family. Normally, it may seem that family groups are not candidates for trying to find acceptance because they are usually defined by special obligations and attachments. Choice has virtually no role in a familys organization, but Shelleys representative households are not solely private unions; instead, they are mobile and joinable. She uses family unions and the fact that the creature is an outsider to think through the problems of the value of affiliation, heredity, and sentiment as the basis of political commonality. Starting around the second half of the novel Mary Shelley further explores alternatives to familial bases for communal ties through Victor and the creatures relationship. Victor is not given the option of living in a creature-less world. Him and his creation are unable to flee from each others presence. They must confront the task of figuring out how to live in the same world together. They eventually meet on the Alpine slopes. It is there where they form the compact of Victor creating the female companion for the creature, as mentioned earlier. The compact here didnt last, but it actually is a crucial point in the book. It sets up brand new principles of connectivity with certain characters who normally disagree deeply with one-another. The creature begins to suspect that Victor Frankenstein cannot be entrusted to be a loving parent. He then presents himself to Victor as a person who has been deeply injured by Frankensteins doings; in doing so, the creature blames Victor for his act ions. The agreement reached at Montanvert produces a reality effect in the story. It is the moment when the characters different opinions and interests meet on a common political world. If one looks only at the surface it will appear that the creature solicits Victor mainly because he is a father figure when they meet. He refers to Victor Frankenstein as his creator and his natural lord and king, and to himself as Frankensteins own creature. Victor does not argue against these facts. He actually admits that he is the author of the creature. Victor admits that he is the one who has authorized the creatures existence. Back at the laboratory right before he created the creature, he was talking about how his new species would bless him as its creator and source. He was really looking forward to giving the being life. Even though Victor was horrified when the being actually came to life, he now seems willing to be moved by something like paternal care. Frankenstein agrees to hear the creatures story because he felt that it was his duty as creator to render the creature happy before complaining of his wickedness. Victor suddenly has a small amount of compassion for the cr eature that he has given life, he is prepared to render him happy by sympathizing with the creature and accepting his wish to just be heard out. However, a closer look of this scene shows the creatures true intent to appeal to Victor Frankensteins paternity as more strategic than sincerity. The creature seems to only coax Victor into temporarily forgetting his hatred in order to hear what the creature has to say. He placates Victor to buy some time in order to tell his story. In other words, he intends to soften Victor up before he makes the request that may very well decide their fates. The creatures tactic is very strategic. He has every reason to be wary of affective ties. What the creature already knows at this time is that sympathy isnt always given to other people, even if they deserve it. He learned this through the way people have treated him when he done good to them. It is clear that Shelley was making a reference to political strategy here. They get you to think of the sympathies and get your vote, just like the creature is getting Victors sympathy to coax him into making him a companion. So, after reading this it is very apparent that there are very many different things to look into when reading Frankenstein. When looked at closer the reader can get a deeper view of the lives of the characters. One may even be able to compare his or her own self to the story. Either way, Frankenstein is arguably one of the very best pieces of literature of all time.
Wednesday, November 13, 2019
The Curious Style of Ã¢â¬Å"Young Goodman BrownÃ¢â¬ Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã The multi-faceted style found in Nathaniel HawthorneÃ¢â¬â¢s Ã¢â¬Å"Young Goodman BrownÃ¢â¬ has many features of interest. It is the intent of this essay to elaborate on these features, with support from literary critics where available. Ã Herman Melville in Ã¢â¬Å"Hawthorne and His Mosses,Ã¢â¬ (in The Literary World August 17, 24, 1850) has a noteworthy comment on HawthorneÃ¢â¬â¢s style: Ã Nathaniel Hawthorne is a man, as yet, almost utterly mistaken among men. Here and there, in some quiet arm-chair in the noisy town, or some deep nook among the noiseless mountains, he may be appreciated for something of what he is. But unlike Shakespeare, who was forced to the contrary course by circumstances, Hawthorne (either from simple disinclination, or else from inaptitude) refrains from all the popularizing noise and show of broad farce, and blood-besmeared tragedy; content with the still, rich utterances of a great intellect in repose, and which sends few thoughts into circulation, except they be arterialized at his large warm lungs, and expanded in his honest heart. Ã How beautifully does this critic capture the basic attitude of Hawthorne, who avoids the Ã¢â¬Å"noise and showÃ¢â¬ and emphasizes his Ã¢â¬Å"rich utterances.Ã¢â¬ Could HawthorneÃ¢â¬â¢s Ã¢â¬Å"rich uterancesÃ¢â¬ be the reason for Henry Seidel Canby in Ã¢â¬Å"A Skeptic Incompatible with His Time and His PastÃ¢â¬ to talk about the Ã¢â¬Å"dignityÃ¢â¬ of his style? Ã¢â¬Å"And indeed there is a lack of consistence between the scorn that our younger critics shower upon HawthorneÃ¢â¬â¢s moral creations and their respect for his style. They admit a dignity in the expression that they will not allow to the thing expressedÃ¢â¬ (62). Canby continues: Ã HawthorneÃ¢â¬â¢style has a mellow beauty; it is sometimes dull, sometimes prim, but it is never for an instant cheap, never, like our later American styles, deficient in tone and unity. It is a style with a patina that may or may not accord with current tastes, yet, as with Browne, Addison, Lamb, Thoreau, is undoubtedly a style. Such styles spring only from rich ground, long cultivated, and such a soil was HawthorneÃ¢â¬â¢s. . . . Holding back from the new life of America into which Whitman was to plunge with such exuberance, he kept his style, like himself, unsullied by the prosaic world of industrial revolution, and chose, for his reality, the workings of the moral will. You can scarcely praise his style and condemn his subjects.
Sunday, November 10, 2019
With the economic climate in the state that it's in, unemployment levels are extremely mean people are struggling to afford the exceedingly high cost of living resulting in the increase of crime rates throughout the country. Thanks to this crime prevention methods have been improved by many new technological devices e.g. databases, CCTV, fingerprinting and speed cameras. DNA database The DNA database can help police investigators link individuals to certain crime sense, this can help add to the evidence against a suspect. People leave their finger prints everywhere, therefore this is why the DNA database is one of the most reliable and trust worthy forms of evidence, also this is one of the most commonly used methods throughout the police force. By the use of this technology it has helped many Ã¢â¬Ëcold cases' be resolved, because this technology wasn't available 15 years ago as it's still a relatively new method of gaining evidence. The database has raised many people awareness of the police and made them realise that it might not be as simple as they believed to commit a crime anymore as there are many different and affective ways of finding the ones reasonable. Because the database holds over a million individual fingerprints, this can result in the process being slow as it has to search through each individual file trying to make a confirmed match. Overall the concept of the DNA database with the technology to scan fingerprints into system where they can be matched to previous crimes and individuals is a great asset to the police helping solve many crimes. CCTV Because of the increase in crime and shop lifting within the 20th century along with the new revolutionary technology, most stores have covalence systems fitted. This makes people scared, and they decide that they don't want to steal anything as they know they will get caught. CCTV is an easy way to keep people from stealing things however it is also very useful when it comes to catching people that have committed the crime. Many smaller businesses would have problems affording a full CCTV set up, to buy a full system with 2 cameras not including insulation would set you back anywhere between Ã ¯Ã ¿Ã ½300 and Ã ¯Ã ¿Ã ½500. Many people dislike the idea of CCTV cameras watching our every move in town centres and cities; they feel as it's an intrusion to their privacy. According to statistics, the average citizen is caught on CCTV cameras 300 times a day. Since 2002 the use of CCTV has increased and the crime prevention rate been dramatically improved. A report by the House of Commons in July 2010 states Ã¢â¬ËThe use of closed circuit television cameras for the purposes of tackling crime has greatly increased over the last decade'. With the use of around 4.2million CCTV cameras in the UK the number of crimes has been decreased by 16%. The most affected area by the cameras is public car parks, by introducing the cameras crime rates have decreased by 51%. By having individuals monitoring the CCTV forages constantly, they are able to see whether or not police are needed and can use judgment to see potential trouble before it happens. In my opinion CCTV has changed lives of many people for the better, as just having the CCTV cameras fitted is enough to put many people off from committing crimes. Also people that use private CCTV cameras benefit as they act also as a deterrent, but if a crime is committed there is a much higher chance of catching the people responsible. Speed Cameras Speed cameras are a great way of controlling the speed of traffic and keeping road users safe, if theses speed are not followed correctly by drivers they are at the risk of receiving a punishment ranging from 3 points and Ã ¯Ã ¿Ã ½60 fine to disqualification to driving and a fine of Ã ¯Ã ¿Ã ½2,500. There are 8 different types of speed cameras that operate in the UK, 7 of them check you speed against the legal speed and then take a photo of your car so they have you registration details to identify the driver at fault. There is one different type of camera call an average speed camera, this works on a different principle, unlike traditional speed cameras it is no use breaking when you see one and then speeding up, as the name suggests they work out the average speed between 2 points. Speed cameras develop and now they can check whether you're insured, whether you're wearing your seat belt, whether you're too close to the car in front. And all of these things are checked thanks to only one picture being taken. The police work is a lot more effective with the use of all the technology, and it is a lot harder to commit a crime without being caught due to the fact you are almost always been watched and leaving your DNA where ever you go. Thanks to all the above technology everyone's lives are a lot safer.
Friday, November 8, 2019
US Military Colt M1911 Pistol Colt M1911 Specifications: Cartridge: .45 ACPCapacity: 7 round detachable box magazineMuzzle Velocity: 835 ft./sec.Weight: approx. 2.44 lbs.Length: 8.25 in.Barrel Length: 5.03 in.Action: Short Recoil Operation Colt M911 Design Development In the 1890s, the US Army began searching for an effective semi-automatic pistol to replace the revolvers that were then in service. This culminated in a series of tests in 1899-1900 in which examples from Mauser, Colt, and Steyr Mannlicher were examined. As a result of these tests, the US Army purchased 1,000 Deutsche Waffen und Munitionsfabriken (DWM) Luger pistols which fired a 7.56 mm cartridge. While the mechanics of these pistols were satisfactory, the US Army (and other users) found that the 7.56 mm cartridge lacked sufficient stopping power in the field. A similar complaint was lodged by US troops battling the Philippine Insurrection. Equipped with M1892 Colt revolvers, they found that its .38 cal. round was insufficient to bring down a charging enemy, especially in the close confines of jungle warfare. To temporarily rectify the situation, older .45 cal. M1873 Colt revolvers were sent to the Philippines. The heavier round quickly proved move effective. This along with the results of the 1904 Thompson-LeGarde tests led planners to conclude that a new pistol should, at minimum, fire a .45 cal. cartridge. Seeking a new .45 cal. design, the Chief of Ordnance, Brigadier General William Crozier, ordered a new series of tests. Colt, Bergmann, Webley, DWM, Savage Arms Company, Knoble, and White-Merril all submitted designs. After preliminary testing, the models from Colt, DWM, and Savage were approved for the next round. While Colt and Savage submitted improved designs, DWM elected to withdraw from the competition. Between 1907 and 1911, extensive field testing took place using both the Savage and Colt designs. Constantly improved as the process moved forward, John Brownings Colt design ultimately won the competition. M1911 Design The action of Brownings M1911 design is recoil operation. As combustion gases drive the bullet down the barrel, they also exert a reverse motion on the slide and barrel pushing them backwards. This motion ultimately leads to an extractor expelling the spent casing before a spring reverses the direction and loads a new round from the magazine. As part of the design process, the US Army directed that the new pistol possess both grip and manual safeties. Operational History Dubbed the Automatic Pistol, Caliber .45, M1911 by the US Army, the new pistol entered service in 1911. Assessing the M1911, the US Navy and Marine Corps accepted it for use two years later. The M1911 saw extensive use with American forces during World War I and performed well. As wartime needs exceeded Colts production capabilities, an additional manufacturing line was established at the Springfield Armory. In the wake of the conflict, the US Army began assessing the M1911s performance. This led to several minor modifications and the introduction of the M1911A1 in 1924. Among the changes to Brownings original design were a wider front site, shorter trigger, an extended grip safety spur, and a simplified design on the grips. Production of the M1911 accelerated during the 1930s as tensions around the globe heightened. As a result, the type was the principal sidearm of US forces in World War II. During the conflict, approximately 1.9 million M1911s were produced by several companies including Colt, Remington Rand, and Singer. The US Army obtained so many M1911s that it did not purchase new pistols for several years after the war. A highly successful design, the M1911 remained in use with US forces during the Korean and Vietnam Wars. In the late 1970s, the US military came under increasing pressure from Congress to standardize its pistol designs and find a weapon that could utilize the NATO-standard 9mm Parabellum pistol cartridge. A variety of testing programs moved forward in the early 1980s which resulted in the selection of the Beretta 92S as the M1911s replacement. Despite this change, the M1911 saw use in the 1991 Gulf War with a variety of specialized units. The M1911 has also remained popular with US Special Forces units which have carried variants during the Iraq War and Operation Enduring Freedom in Afghanistan. As a result of their use of the weapon, the Army Marksman Unit began experimenting with improving the M1911 in 2004. Designated the M1911-A2 project, they produced several variants for Special Forces use. The M1911 has been produced under license in other countries and is currently in use with numerous militaries around the world. The weapon is also popular with sportsmen and competitive shooters. In addition, the M1911 and its derivatives are in use with law enforcement agencies such as the Federal Bureau of Investigations Hostage Rescue Team, numerous local S.W.A.T. units, and many local police forces. Selected Source Browning: History of the M1911 PistolOlive-Drab: M1911/1911A1 PistolWorld Guns: Colt M1911 Pistol
Wednesday, November 6, 2019
Should I Go to a Rural, Urban, or Suburban College SAT / ACT Prep Online Guides and Tips The location of a school can have a big impact on your experience as a student. ItÃ¢â¬â¢s important to be aware of your preferences and make sure you choose a college that lines up with what will make you happiest. In this article, IÃ¢â¬â¢ll give you some details on the characteristics of rural, urban, and suburban college environments so that you can decide which one sounds like the best fit for you. What Is a Rural College Environment Like? Rural colleges are colleges that are located in the country, often with access to wilderness areas and farms. Generally, a college is considered rural if its campus is in a town with a population of less than 25,000 people.These schools can provide great outdoor learning opportunities in fields like environmental science and agriculture. I attendedDartmouth College, which I would consider a rural schoolgivenits remote location in the small town of Hanover, NH. While there, I took a class called Ã¢â¬Å"Food and Power.Ã¢â¬ We got to go on a field trip to the organic farm thatÃ¢â¬â¢s associated with the college and eat some delicious fresh asparagus. (Seriously, I didnÃ¢â¬â¢t know it was possible for asparagus to taste that good.)Students also had the opportunity to work on the farm and learn more about how food was grown, an experience that wouldn't be accessible in a city environment. Usually at rural colleges there will still be a small town of some kind nearby so you can buy basic necessities that arenÃ¢â¬â¢t available on campus.Rural colleges tend to be far from any major city centers, although some do provide busing for students to cities that are within a reasonable distance (e.g. a couple of hours away).Rural college campuses are often very self-contained, meaning that not many students will live off campus because there arenÃ¢â¬â¢t enough options! Most events will happen on campus since there are very few opportunities to go out to clubs or shows off-campus.For this reason, rural colleges will often bring free concerts and performances to their students.These can be pretty cool, and this state of affairsalso means that youÃ¢â¬â¢ll spend a lot less money on going out with your friends.The scenery and activities available can vary immensely depending on where a rural college is located. Some are near mountains with great skiing and hiking and some might be near lakes or nice biking trails. Examples of rural colleges include: Middlebury College Bucknell University Carleton College Bucknell University in either the spring or fall. I can't tell which it is. All I know is that those trees are showing a LOT of branch. Is a Rural College the Right Choice for You? Rural colleges are great for students who love the outdoors and want to be a part of a tight-knit community.If you prefer to go for a hike or hang out with your friends in a quieter setting rather than spend a night out on the town, a rural college may be right up your alley.Rural colleges are ideal for those who prefer a friendly, relaxed atmosphere where they will mainly be interacting with other college students.If the idea of living on campus for most or all of your time in college and sticking to the same few reliable options for entertainment and food doesnÃ¢â¬â¢t bother you, then youÃ¢â¬â¢ll probably like the atmosphere at a rural college. One drawback of this type of environment is that there might not be as many job or internship opportunities available in the immediate vicinity.However, this can also leave you more open to the possibility of traveling somewhere new and exciting for a summer internship or job rather than sticking around in the same area. Rural colleges will do their best to provide on-campus job opportunities for students who are interested. Another thing to keep in mind is the transportation situation at rural colleges. If you don't have a car, it's going to be difficult for you to get off campus. This can feel a little bit claustrophobic at times. Many schools do provide busing or access to local transportation systems, but it's much less convenient to get around without a car at a rural college. If you don't have a car, you will probably end up knowing someone with a car, though; it's typically not a huge issue unless you're set on driving home every weekend. What Is an Urban College Environment Like? Urban colleges are located in large cities (typically with populations of 200,000 or more).The layouts of urban college campuses can vary immensely; some are more self-contained in their own little bubbles, and some are spread throughout the city.If a campus is more spread out, the college often offers specialized public transportation shuttles for students or will provide students with passes to use on the cityÃ¢â¬â¢s public transportationsystems.Urban college campuses are extremely variable depending on the city and neighborhood where they are located, so you'll need to visit the school and do some research before making too many assumptions about what the environment is actually like. In many cases, urban campuses will offer off-campus learning opportunities in the form of internships and classes that allow students to interact with the surrounding community.Since urban campuses have such a close proximity to so many company headquarters and job opportunities, they can be great places to start your internship search and get your foot in the door career-wise. Urban colleges will provide you with access to many off-campus entertainment options including museums, bars, clubs, concerts, movies, plays, and more.They also tend to attract a more diverse student body. Examples of urban colleges include: New York University Northeastern University UCLA The Northeastern University campus. Dat landscaping. Is an Urban College the Right Choice for You? If youÃ¢â¬â¢re all about being in an exciting setting with lots of events and diverse people, an urban college might be the place for you. Since students from a variety of different backgrounds tend to be drawn to schools in big cities, urban colleges usually have a less homogeneous student body than rural colleges.Urban colleges are good environments for outgoing students who like to explore and interact with all different types of people and cultures.There will always be something going on in the surrounding city, and youÃ¢â¬â¢ll be able to access pretty much any activity that interests you because of the breadth of experiences available.ItÃ¢â¬â¢s likely that there will also be other college campuses nearby, so you might have more opportunities to meet and interact with students from other colleges. Overall, it's much easier to get around at urban colleges because you'll usually have access to a robust public transportation system. People will be able to visit you even if they don't have cars because of your central location. If you do have a car, you may run into some issues at an urban college because cars often become largely unnecessary, and it can be expensive to park. If youÃ¢â¬â¢re hoping to live off campus and get more of a taste of adult life in college, an urban college might be a good choice.YouÃ¢â¬â¢ll have tons of choices for where you want to live as an upperclassman. Keep in mind, however, that you couldstill run into cost issues, especially in larger cities (looking at you, New York). High housing pricescan limit your choices and make dorm life a more realistic option.At an urban college, you also wonÃ¢â¬â¢t be stuck with the schoolÃ¢â¬â¢s dining options or the limited number of restaurants that might be available at a college in a small town. If thereÃ¢â¬â¢s a certain city that is a hot spot for a career field that interests you, you might consider attending an urban college in the area to do some networking. It's easier to make connections when you can meet up with potential employers face to face. What Is a Suburban College Environment Like? A suburban college is a college thatÃ¢â¬â¢s located somewhere between the rural and urban college environment.These colleges may be in small cities, large towns, or residential areas near large cities with populations that number between 25,000 and 200,000.Suburban colleges will offer some of the qualities of both urban and rural schools depending on their proximity to cities and the layout of their campuses. Suburban college campuses tend to be self-contained like rural colleges, fostering a sense of community amongst students.However, students at suburban colleges will have more options for activities off campus in the surrounding area.Suburban campuses often provide students with access to both outdoor activities similar to those found at rural colleges and urban entertainment options such as the museums, concerts, and clubs mentioned above. In many cases, suburban colleges have strong ties to the towns in which they are located, meaning student discounts at local venues as well as more job and internship opportunities. Local transportation is often provided to students for easy access to activities in the area, but it may be less directly accessible than at urban schools. It can be useful to have a car at a suburban college, but it's usually not necessary for getting off campus. Examples of suburban colleges include: Pomona College University of Virginia Tufts University Pomona College, where you can't be sad unless you don't ever look outside. Is a Suburban College the Right Choice for You? If different aspects of both rural and urban colleges appeal to you, then the suburban college life might be a good fit.You may like being in the city to a certain degree, but you want to be able to get away that atmosphere sometimes and enjoy nature.Suburban colleges will give you many choices for how you want to spend your time outside of class. If you want to get off campus you can, but you can also choose to stay within the college bubble if thatÃ¢â¬â¢s what makes you feel more comfortable.Depending on location, suburban colleges may offer more access to off-campus housing options for students.If youÃ¢â¬â¢re interested in living off-campus without being in the middle of a big, intimidating city, a suburban college could be a great choice. Conclusion Location and environment are very important factors to consider when choosing a college.Depending on your personality, you might be happier at a rural, urban, or suburban school.Rural campuses are great for students who want to experience the outdoors far from the hustle and bustle of city life and be a part of a very independent college community.Urban campuses might be a better fit for students who love to go out on the town, experience a wide variety of cultural events, and meet lots of new people outside of those who attend their same school.Suburban campuses present a mixture of both environments; if aspects of both rural and suburban colleges appeal to you, a suburban college might be the way to go. Remember that this is just one factor that you should think about in your college search!Read my guide on how to choose a college to help you start brainstorming your preferences and researching schools. What's Next? You've probably heard of safety schools and reach schools, but how should you go about choosing them for yourself? Read more about how to decide on the bestsafety schools and reach schools in these articles. Another important way that colleges are categorized is by their status as public or private institutions. Find out what each type of school offers and whether one might be a better fit for you. Going to a college that's far away from your hometown can be a tough transition, but it's a great experience for many students. Learn about the pros and cons of going to school out of state. Want to improve your SAT score by 160points or your ACT score by 4 points?We've written a guide for each test about the top 5 strategies you must be using to have a shot at improving your score. Download it for free now:
Sunday, November 3, 2019
Observations - Essay Example The child has to be observed severally at different settings and the pieces of evidences put together to form one informed conclusion (Wortham, 2008). The different types of observation entail using different media to capture the actions of children for analysis. For example, the person conducting the assessment can use cameras to monitor and capture all the activities of children so that they can be analyzed later. The children can also be observed directly on different occasions and the evidence gathered can be used to assess them. Whichever method of observation used, the abilities, attitudes, interests, characteristics, personality, values and interest of the children can be known. The assessors can be able to know a child better and understand them as unique individuals and not merely as members of a group (Arnold & Doctoroff, 2003). In conclusion, the process of observation does not only entail single sessions. The children have to be observed on many different occasions and in different setting so as to find out the true picture of their abilities, characteristics, personalities, interests, values or any other characteristic that may be under assessment. There are different types of observations that depend on the type of characteristic that is under assessment (Barratt-Pugh & Rohl,
Friday, November 1, 2019
The Declaration of the Immediate Causes - Research Paper Example The document argues that the agreement between the US and South Carolina is subject to the law as stipulated in the constitution which establishes responsibilities on both sides and denounces the agreement or contract if either of the party fails to live up to the expectations of the responsibilities. Further, the document highlighted that the Federal government of the US had failed to honor their responsibilities to the State of South Carolina. For instance, some States were not willing to adapt the Fugitive Slave Act (Watson and Batchelder 1860, 77-8). Due to this and other problems, the document asserted that South Carolina had withdrawn from the Federal Union. The main purpose of this document was to protest against the Northern States that were seen as violating the constitution by failing to extradite slaves. Further, it is through this declaration that the State of South Carolina aimed at showing its resentments on the efforts made by the federal government and the Northern States to abolish slavery, which they viewed as constitutionally guarded. Therefore, South Carolina thought that the federal government and the Northern States had violated the agreement, and thus, it was not bound by it (Watson and Batchelder 1860, 76). Initially, South Carolina had issued other documents. This declaration was the second document to be issued by the State of South Carolina secession or withdrawal convention. The first document to be issued in South Carolina was the ordinance of secession.